Responses such as Flushing, Flowering, Pod Reserving, and Yield of TSH 858 Clone Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) to an Increase in Dose of Balanced N.P.K.Ca.Mg 12.9:11.4:16.8:10.6:4.8 Fertilizing

Nurdin Sitohang, Erwin M. Harahap, Chairani Hanum, Tumpal H.S. Siregar, Hasril Siregar


Response of cacao plants to fertilizer is influenced by plant condition and homogeneity, which requires an optimal dose to obtain the best vegetation and yield. Cacao plants will experience deficiency if they receive a below-optimal fertilizer dose, and they will experience toxicity when they receive an above-optimal fertilizer dose. This study aimed to determine the best dose of balanced N.P.K.Ca.Mg fertilization for productive and non-productive yield of TSH 858 clone cocoa and a more suitable dose for flush (young shoot and leaves), cherelle (young fruit), and fruit development to increase cacao yield. This research consisted of two parallel experiments on productive and non-productive plants in the same area. It used randomized non-factorial design, with treatments consisting of four levels of dose N.P.K.Ca.Mg 12.9 : 11.4 : 16.8 : 10.6 : 4.8 stages, namely: 896; 1,120; 1,344; and 1,568 (g tree-1). Observations were made for 24 weeks on the parameters such as the number of flushes, flowers, cherelles, fruit stock, water shoot, size of flushing leaves, fruit volume, fruit and seed weight. Dose of fertilizer insignificantly affected all observation parameters; a dose of 1,344 g tree-1 produced the best yield with 39.7 cherelles and 25.0 fruits stock. Higher dose of 1,568 g tree-1 tended to reduce the number of flushes, flowers, cherelles, fruit stock, fruit volume, fruit weight, and seed weight. Productive plants had a better response to fertilization than non-productive plants; therefore, individual productive plants need preliminary inventory before intensive fertilization. The research recommends a maximum dose of fertilizer at 1,344 g tree-1.


Keywords: balanced fertilizer, dose, productive cacao.



Full Text:



VLIET, J.A.V., and K.E. GILLER, Mineral Nutrition of Cocoa: A Review. Chapter 5: 185-270. In SPARKS D.L. Advances in Agronomy, vol. 141, Wagenigen University and Research Centre. 2017. 2016.10.017.

SNOECK, D. The soil diagnostic method to compute fertilizer requirements in cocoa plantations. International Conference on Soil Science, Accra, 7-11 January 2007.

DOW A.I. and ROBERTS S. Proposal: Critical Nutrient Ranges for Crop Diagnosis 1. Agronomy Journal, 1982, 74(2), 401-403.

MCGRATH J.M., SPARGO J. and PENN C.J.. Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition. In: VAN ALFEN N. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, 2014, 5: 166-184. Elsevier, San Diego, USA.

OLSON, R.A., FRANK K.D., GRABOUSKI P.H. and REHM G.W. Economic and Agronomic Impacts of Varied Philosophies of Soil Testing. Agronomy Journal, 1982, 74(3): 492-499.

HERGERT, G.W., PAN W.L., HUGGINS D.R., et al.. Adequacy of current fertilizer recommendations for site-specific management. The state of site specific management for agriculture, (the state of sites), 1997: 283-300.

HORNECK, D.A., SULLIVAN D.M., OWEN J.S. and HART J.M. Soil test interpretation guide. 2011. Available from: report or publications/2b88qc45x

KOERSELMAN, W. and MEULEMAN A.F. The vegetation N: P ratio: a new tool to detect the nature of nutrient limitation. Journal of Applied Ecology, 1996, 33(6): 1441-1450.

SNOECK, D., KOKO L., JOFFRE J., et al. Cacao Nutrition and Fertilization. In: LICHTFOUSE E. (Ed.) Sustainable Agriculture Reviews, 2016, 19: 155-202. Springer, Cham.

FIRMANSYAH, M.A. Rekomendasi pemupukan umum karet, kelapa sawit, kopi dan kakao, pp: Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Kalimantan Tengah. 2010: 1-11. Available from: http://kalteng.litbang.

SITOHANG N., HARAHA, E.M., HANUM C., et al. The Effect of Balanced N.P.K.Ca.Mg Fertilizing on Flushing, Flowering and Pod Reserving in TSH 858 Clone Productive Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology 2020, 29(05): 141-151.

SCHENK H.J. Root competition: beyond resource depletion. Journal of Ecology, 2006, 94(4): 725-739.

CRAINE J.M. and DYBZINSKI R. Mechanisms of plant competition for nutrients, water and light. Functional Ecology 2013, 27(4): 833-840.

PRAWOTO A.A. Botani dan Fisiologi dalam Panduan Lengkap Kakao Manajemen Agribisnis dari Hulu Hingga Hilir oleh Wahyudi, T., T.R. Panggabean dan Pujiyanto, 2009: 39-62. Penebar Swadaya, Jakarta, Indonesia.

SARI I.A. and SUSILO A.W. Stability in Flowering, Flushing and Fruiting Characters of 21 Potential Cacao Clones in ICCRI Collection. Pelita Perkebunan (a Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal), 2013, 29(2): 82-92.

WESSEL M. Shade and Nutrition, In WOOD G.A.R. and LASS R.A. (Eds.) Cocoa, 1987: 166-192. 4th Edition, Longman Scientific & Technical John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York, USA.

STEEL R.G.D. and TORRIE J.H. Prinsip dan Prosedur Statistik Suatu Pendekatan Biometrik (Alih bahasa: Bambang Sumantri), 1995: 708. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta, Indonesia.

PRAWOTO A.A. Dinamika Pertunasan, Layu Pentil, dan Ketepatan Taksasi Produksi Beberapa Klon Kakao. Pelita Perkebunan, 2014, 30(2): 100-114. Available from: 20Perkebunan/vol 30 no 2 agustus 2014/3.%20 AAP-F1 100-114.pdf.

WACHJAR A. and KADARISMAN L. Pengaruh Kombinasi Pupuk Organik Cair dan Pupuk Anorganik serta Frekuensi Aplikasinya terhadap Pertumbuhan Tanaman Kakao (Theobroma cacao L) Belum Menghasilkan. Indonesian Journal of Agronomy, 2007, 35(3): 212-216.

AULAKH M.S. and MALHI S.S. Interactions of nitrogen with other nutrients and water: Effect on crop yield and quality, nutrient use efficiency, carbon sequestration, and environmental pollution. Advances in Agronomy, 2005, 86: 341-409.

EREL R., DAG A., BEN-GAL A. et al. Flowering and fruit set of olive trees in response to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 2008, 133(5): 639-647.

FAGERIA V.D., Nutrient interactions in crop plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 2001, 24(8): 1269-1290.

DIBB D.W. and THOMPSON W.R. Interaction of Potassium with Other Nutrients. In MUNSON R.D. (Ed.) Potassium in Agriculture, 1985: 515-533.

HAMZAH H. and SILAEN R.H. Pengaruh Dosis Pupuk NPK (15-15-15) Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Jabon Merah (Anthocephalus macrophyllus Roxb. Havil) di Pembibitan. Jurnal Silva Tropika, 2018, 2(2): 1-5.

LI, Y.C., DAVENPORT T.L., RAO R. and ZHENG Q. Nitrogen, flowering and production of lychee in Florida, pp: 221-224. Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Litchi and Longan 558, 2001. USA.

FLETCHER A., RENNENBERG H. and SCHMIDT S. Nitrogen partitioning in orchard-grown Macadamia integrifolia. Tree Physiology, 2009, 30(2): 244-256.

FRIMPONG K.O., POWELL D.L. and APPIAH M.R. Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer Application on Some Forms of Phosphorus in Selected Ghanaian Cocoa Growing Soils. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science., 1997, 30(1): 23-29.

KHAN A.A., SAJID M. and RAB A. Tomato fruit quality as affected by different sources of phosphorus. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 2014, 13(12): 692-699.

NURTIKA N. Respons tanaman tomat terhadap penggunaan pupuk majemuk NPK 15-15-15 pada tanah Latosol pada musim kemarau. Jurnal Hortikultura, 2009, 19(1).

NAIBAHO R. Pengaruh Pupuk Phonska dan Pengapuran Terhadap Kandungan Unsur Hara NPK dan pH Beberapa Tanah Hutan [Skripsi]. Bogor: Institut Pertanian Bogor, Jurusan Menejemen Hutan. 2003.

WANG M., ZHENG Q., SHEN Q. and GUO S. The critical role of potassium in plant stress response. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2013, 14(4): 7370-7390.

GRZEBISZ W., GRANSEE A., SZCZEPANIAK W. and DIATTA J. The effects of potassium fertilization on water use efficiency in crop plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 2013, 176(3): 355-374.

LI Y.M., ELSON M., ZHANG D., HE Z., et al. Macro and Micro Nutrient Uptake Parameters and Use Efficiency in Cacao Genotypes as Influenced by Levels of Soil Applied K. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 2015, 7: 80-90.

ASTUTI Y.T.M., PRAWOTO A. and DEWI K. Effect of flush existence, NAA and GA application on cocoa pod development. Pelita Perkebunan (a Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal), 2011, 27(1): 11-23.

SCHROTH G. and HARVEY C.A. Biodiversity conservation in cocoa production landscapes: an overview. Biodiversity and Conservation, 2007, 16(8): 2237-2244.

ROY R.N., FINCK A., BLAIR G.J. and TANDON H.L.S. Plant Nutrition for Food Security A Guide for Integrated Nutrient Management, 2007.

WITJAKSONO J. Asmin: Cocoa farming system in Indonesia and its sustainability under climate change. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 2016, 5(5), 170-180.

REETZ H.F. Fertilizers and their efficient use. International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA), Paris. 2016.


  • There are currently no refbacks.