Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences

The Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences is the leading Chinese academic journal that publishes articles in all areas of natural sciences. The Journal is meant to serve as a means of communication and discussion of important issues related to science and scientific activities. The Journal publishes only original articles in English which have international importance. In addition to full-length research articles, the Journal publishes review articles. Papers can be focused on fundamental research leading to new methods, or adaptation of existing methods for new applications.

Articles for the Journal are peer-reviewed by third-party reviewers who are selected from among specialists in the subject matter of peer-reviewed materials.

The Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences is a kind of forum for discussing issues and problems facing science and scholars, as well as an effective means of interaction between the members of the academic community. The Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences is read bya large number of scholars, and the circulation of the journal is constantly growing.

The Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences publishes special issues on various and relevant topics of interest to the scientific community.

The Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences is indexed by Web of Science, Scopus, Current Contents, Geobase and Chemical Abstracts.


Articles containing fundamental or applied scientific results in all areas of the natural sciences are accepted for consideration.

The Editorial Board of the Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences is composed of 25 members and is chaired by Academician Chen Zhengqing. Editor-in-chief is Prof. Yi Weijian.


Frequency of publication: monthly

ISSN: 1674-2974

Access to all articles on the website is open, does not require registration or payment.

Journal articles are licensed under the CC BY 4.0 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

The Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences takes care of maintaining electronic versions of articles. Data safety is ensured by backing up digital data in accordance with internal regulations. Logical and physical data migration is also provided. Cloud technologies are applied.

For further information, please contact:


Address: Lushan Road (S), Yuelu District, Changsha, Hunan Province, Zip Code: 410082 (Editorial Department of Journal)



Submission open for Volume 51, Issue 6, June, 2024

Dear Authors,

Please submit your manuscripts through our Online Submission System or directly to the Chief -Editor's e-mail
Deadline:  June 26 , 2024.

Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences is an international, peer-reviewed open - access journal on all aspects of natural sciences published monthly online.
Manuscripts are peer-reviewed. The first decision is given to authors about 20-30 days after submission; acceptance for publication after revisions is done within seven days.
Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences provides an advanced forum on all aspects of natural sciences. It publishes reviews, research papers, and communications. We aim to encourage scientists to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detail as possible. There is no restriction on the length of the papers. The full experimental details must be provided so that everyone can reproduce the results. Electronic files and software regarding the full details of the calculation or experimental procedure can be deposited as supplementary electronic material if unable to be published in a normal way.

The journal covers physics, chemistry, engineering, environmental, earth sciences and biology.

•    Biosciences and Bioengineering;
•    Computer and Information Science;
•    Chemistry;
•    Earth-Aerospace-Marine Science;
•    Electrical and Electronic Engineering;
•    Education;
•    Engineering;
•    Energy;
•    Environmental Sciences;
•    Economy;
•    Finance;
•    Materials Science;
•    Mathematics;
•    Medicine;
•    Neurosciences ;
•    Physics;
•    Pharmaceuticals.

The authors should prepare the articles strictly according to the template. Please check the link

All articles published in are published in full open access. In order to provide free access to readers, and to cover the costs of peer review, copyediting, typesetting, long-term archiving, and journal management, an article processing charge (APC) of EUR 430 applies to papers accepted after peer - review.
Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use our English editing service (EUR 70-100) prior to publication or during author revisions. The articles that native English speakers do not edit are not allowed for publication.
The journal publishes articles in English or Chinese.
Articles published in the Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences will be Open-Access articles distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The copyright is retained by the author(s).
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Last Research Articles

Photovoltaic modules are typically rated and tested in laboratories under standard test conditions. Such conditions cannot be maintained outdoors due to the random nature of environmental conditions and operating parameters, such as the topography of the target location, slope, orientation, elevation, albedo, and available technologies. The impact of the backside of bifacial modules on electricity generation remains uncertain due to their ability to generate power from both the front and back surfaces. This study aims to experimentally analyze and predict the electrical characteristics of half-cut bifacial PERC monocrystalline photovoltaic (PV) modules under outdoor conditions in Nawabshah. In this connection, an experimental system was mounted over a departmental building for data recording and analysis. The global solar radiation (Grad) of the study site was measured using a light meter (HD-2302), and the ambient temperature (Ta), wind speed (Ws), and relative humidity (Rh) were measured using a digital anemometer PROVA AVM-05. The electrical characteristics of both the front and back sides of the modules were documented using PROVA-1101. These data were collected consistently from 09:00 to 16:00, at hourly intervals, over a period of five months spanning from February to June 2023. In addition, different existing models were used to predict the electrical characteristics of bifacial PV modules based on recorded data. During the analysis period, it was observed that the front side of the modules generated approximately 91% of the output power, while the backside accounted for 9%. The Evan–Florschuetz model equation was found to be more suitable for predicting bifacial module efficiency because it gives less error based on measured data.


Keywords: ambient temperature, half-cut bifacial photovoltaic module, humidity, statistical analysis, solar radiation, wind speed.

Muhammad Moosa Jakhrani, Abdul Sattar Saand, Abdul Qayoom Jakhrani, Abdul Rehman Jatoi, Kishan Chand Mukwana

The emergence of irregularities within the Catholic Church began to surface primarily after the Second Vatican Council, coinciding with the rapid development of churches that deviated from the liturgical provisions set forth by the Catholic Church. This trend has led to a diminishing sense of sacredness within these places of worship. It is crucial to recognize the interplay between form, function, and meaning in the evolution of the Catholic Church architecture. This study delves into the architectural form, function, and meaning of cathedral churches, with a specific focus on the Ijen Cathedral Church in Malang, Indonesia. The church underwent renovations in 2002 for maintenance, resulting in several alterations. The methodology employed in this research includes research preparation, implementation, data analysis, and the documentation of research findings. The findings indicate that within the Ijen Cathedral Church, the interplay between form, function, and meaning illustrates that these elements complement each other to form a harmonious unity. The sacredness of this church can be felt through the attention to the three aspects. Therefore, it can be concluded the Ijen Cathedral Church exemplifies the interconnected relationship between form, function, and meaning in Catholic architecture. It plays a crucial role in creating sacred and meaningful spaces for its congregation.


Keywords: architecture, form, function, meaning, Ijen Cathedral Church.

Celina Marey Chia, Antariksa

Generally, irrigation optimization is carried out under existing conditions; however, this research aims to develop a pre- and post-season-transition irrigation optimization model. The methodology involves analyzing the seasonal transition conducted in previous research to identify the variables influencing model construction. This analysis is used to develop an optimization model before and after the seasonal transition. However, rainfall exhibits a dynamic nature and varies between different seasons. The importance of studying changes in climate patterns, such as fluctuations in precipitation levels and shifts in rainfall patterns, is crucial in understanding the impacts of climate change. The observation of rainfall characteristic changes in that season has a direct impact on the schedule of cropping patterns and water availability in irrigation areas, one of which is the irrigation area of Kedungsoko, Nganjuk, East Java Province, Indonesia. Climate change impacts the irrigation area, which spans approximately 788 hectares. This is indicated by the change in the optimization value. The analysis indicates that, based on data from 2001 to 2009 (pre-climate change), the benefits were approximately Rp 13,338,354,260, Rp 10,102,546,222, and Rp 5,159,418,693 for cropping seasons I, II, and III, respectively, resulting in a total benefit of about Rp 28,600,319,176. However, post-climate change (data after 2009), the benefits decreased to approximately Rp 12,893,821,171, Rp 10,213,765,338, and Rp 5,307,946,837 for the respective cropping seasons, with a total benefit of about Rp 28,415,533,345. The optimization results before and after climate change show a difference of approximately Rp 184,785,831, with smaller difference after climate change.


Keywords: irrigation optimization, seasonal transition, Kedungsoko.

Olvi Pamadya, Pitojo Tri Juwono, Ussy Andawayanti, Runi Asmaranto

The empowerment of women is an important agenda in upholding women’s rights. Empowering women in the energy sector can help them gain more control over balancing work and family matters. Studies have shown that mobile technology has the potential to have both positive and negative impacts on the work-life balance of individuals. Support from organizations, particularly from managers, plays a crucial role in empowering employees. The utilization of mobile technology can also have a positive impact on the work-life balance of employees. Therefore, managerial support is viewed as a key factor in enhancing empowerment initiatives and maximizing the benefits of mobile technology for employees' work-life balance. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the influence of female empowerment, mobile technology usage, and managerial support on work-life balance. The authors delved into content validation of the instruments used in this study using the content validation index (CVI) method. The originality lies in the thorough investigation of the ways in which a variety of variables, including work-life balance, managerial support, mobile technology usage, and women's empowerment, intersect and impact the lives of female engineers. The research was made more rigorous using the CVI technique, which guarantees that the results are solid and trustworthy. This research offers valuable insights into strategies for narrowing the gender gap in the engineering field and empowering and supporting women in the workplace. This paper delves into the research methodology, instrument development, and content validation results.


Keywords: women empowerment, research methodology, instrument development, content validity.

Nur Izzaty Shahirah Nor Sham, Rohani Salleh, Sharifah Syahirah Syed Sheikh

Metformin HCl is an effective oral hypoglycemic agent for glycemic control in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. Metformin HCl with omeprazole and lansoprazole is often required to control glycemia and cure GERD simultaneously. This raised the probability of drug-drug interactions of metformin HCl with omeprazole and lansoprazole. This study evaluated the in vitro drug-drug interaction between metformin HCl with omeprazole and lansoprazole by applying a dissolution test followed by UPLC analysis. The dissolution test of metformin HCl was conducted both independently and in conjunction with omeprazole and lansoprazole under two gastrointestinal conditions. The study then assessed the quantitative impact of omeprazole and lansoprazole on a single dose of metformin HCl using UPLC analysis. The study results demonstrated that the availability and release percentage of metformin HCl in vitro increased in simulated gastrointestinal conditions when administered with lansoprazole and omeprazole. The dissolution profiles of metformin HCl reference and test batches in the simulated gastrointestinal fluid showed dissimilarity according to the fit factors (f2 and f1). The ANOVA revealed significant results at a 95% CI (P<0.05) when comparing the mean percent release of metformin HCl. This confirms notable differences in the dissolution profiles between the reference and test batches in simulated gastrointestinal fluid. This in vitro metformin HCl, omeprazole, and lansoprazole drug-drug interaction study concluded that metformin HCl in vitro availability increases, which consequently affects bioavailability and could enhance the therapeutic efficacy of metformin HCl. Additional in vivo research is necessary to fully understand the clinical implications of this drug-drug interaction. It is recommended that the co-administration of metformin HCl with omeprazole and lansoprazole be closely monitored, and simultaneous intake of metformin HCl with omeprazole and lansoprazole be avoided.


Keywords: metformin HCl, omeprazole, lansoprazole, UPLC.

Shereen, Sohail Hassan, Syed Ghulam Musharraf, Qazi Syed Iftikhar Hayat, Nazia Tabbusum, Syeda Tehreem, Syeda Rafia Zehra Rizvi, Iffat Sultana, Yusra Khan
Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences
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