Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences

The Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences is the leading Chinese academic journal that publishes articles in all areas of natural sciences. The Journal is meant to serve as a means of communication and discussion of important issues related to science and scientific activities. The Journal publishes only original articles in English which have international importance. In addition to full-length research articles, the Journal publishes review articles. Papers can be focused on fundamental research leading to new methods, or adaptation of existing methods for new applications.

Articles for the Journal are peer-reviewed by third-party reviewers who are selected from among specialists in the subject matter of peer-reviewed materials.

The Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences is a kind of forum for discussing issues and problems facing science and scholars, as well as an effective means of interaction between the members of the academic community. The Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences is read bya large number of scholars, and the circulation of the journal is constantly growing.

The Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences publishes special issues on various and relevant topics of interest to the scientific community.

The Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences is indexed by Web of Science, Scopus, Current Contents, Geobase and Chemical Abstracts.


Articles containing fundamental or applied scientific results in all areas of the natural sciences are accepted for consideration.

The Editorial Board of the Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences is composed of 25 members and is chaired by Academician Chen Zhengqing. Editor-in-chief is Prof. Yi Weijian.


Frequency of publication: monthly

ISSN: 1674-2974

Access to all articles on the website is open, does not require registration or payment.

Journal articles are licensed under the CC BY 4.0 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

The Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences takes care of maintaining electronic versions of articles. Data safety is ensured by backing up digital data in accordance with internal regulations. Logical and physical data migration is also provided. Cloud technologies are applied.

For further information, please contact:


Address: Lushan Road (S), Yuelu District, Changsha, Hunan Province, Zip Code: 410082 (Editorial Department of Journal)



Submission open for Volume 51, Issue 2, February, 2024

Dear Authors,

Please submit your manuscripts through our Online Submission System or directly to the Chief -Editor's e-mail
Deadline:  February 15 , 2024.

Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences is an international, peer-reviewed open - access journal on all aspects of natural sciences published monthly online.
Manuscripts are peer-reviewed. The first decision is given to authors about 20-30 days after submission; acceptance for publication after revisions is done within seven days.
Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences provides an advanced forum on all aspects of natural sciences. It publishes reviews, research papers, and communications. We aim to encourage scientists to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detail as possible. There is no restriction on the length of the papers. The full experimental details must be provided so that everyone can reproduce the results. Electronic files and software regarding the full details of the calculation or experimental procedure can be deposited as supplementary electronic material if unable to be published in a normal way.

The journal covers physics, chemistry, engineering, environmental, earth sciences and biology.

•    Biosciences and Bioengineering;
•    Computer and Information Science;
•    Chemistry;
•    Earth-Aerospace-Marine Science;
•    Electrical and Electronic Engineering;
•    Education;
•    Engineering;
•    Energy;
•    Environmental Sciences;
•    Economy;
•    Finance;
•    Materials Science;
•    Mathematics;
•    Medicine;
•    Neurosciences ;
•    Physics;
•    Pharmaceuticals.

The authors should prepare the articles strictly according to the template. Please check the link

All articles published in are published in full open access. In order to provide free access to readers, and to cover the costs of peer review, copyediting, typesetting, long-term archiving, and journal management, an article processing charge (APC) of EUR 430 applies to papers accepted after peer - review.
Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use our English editing service (EUR 70-100) prior to publication or during author revisions. The articles that native English speakers do not edit are not allowed for publication.
The journal publishes articles in English or Chinese.
Articles published in the Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences will be Open-Access articles distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The copyright is retained by the author(s).
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Last Research Articles

The significance of interconnection networks extends beyond the semiconductor industry, becoming integral to industrial engineering, particularly in the era of the Internet of Things (IoT). Both sectors share a strategic emphasis on developing sophisticated networks to enhance performance and scalability. Techniques such as Cartesian product fusion have led to the development of novel interconnected networks, addressing the demand for high-speed communication. The novel network topology, including the Torus-Enhanced Butterfly (TREB) network, is developed by the Cartesian product of the Torus (TR) and Enhanced Butterfly (EB) networks and holds unexplored aspects, particularly concerning the existence of Hamiltonian paths. The objective of this study is to devise a methodology for identifying k-Hamiltonian paths in an extensive TREB network. Contributions include theoretical and algorithmic proofs of Hamiltonian path existence using a hybrid approach. This approach divides the large TREB network graph into four EB subgraphs, and from each subgraph, all Hamiltonian paths are sought using the brute force method as a subsolution. Next, a dynamic programming-based algorithm is used to connect the Hamiltonian paths in these four subgraphs into a complete Hamiltonian path in the TREB network. The experiments reveal several properties of the TREB network that can only be derived through algorithmic approaches. These include the exact number of paths, which can be found from a valid permutation arrangement of the EB subgraphs, reaching approximately one billion paths, and the sequence of nodes forming Hamiltonian pathways.


Keywords: Hamiltonian paths, torus network, butterfly network, interconnection network, exact algorithms.

Latifah, Tubagus Mohammad Akhriza

The One Health approach considers the interdependence of human, animal, and environmental health because 70% of diseases affecting humans are mainly in animals. Water serves as a vehicle for the transmission of these diseases. Consequently, monitoring the quality of water for human consumption is crucial, constituting an activity of the environmental health units of the Peruvian Ministry of Health. In 2019, water quality monitoring was conducted in the province of Chucuito, Puno Region, to determine the quality of drinking water for human consumption under the One Health approach. The physicochemical analysis indicated that the parameters were within normal limits, except for residual chlorine, which was completely absent. Microbiological analysis revealed total coliforms and E. coli. These findings impact the responsible production of water for human consumption. According to water quality regulations in Peru, this water has fecal contamination, posing a high microbiological risk and rendering it unsuitable for human consumption. Urgent disinfection is required. These results highlight the breakdown of the human–environment–animal interface of the One Health approach, putting public health at risk.


Keywords: One Health, public health, risk, water quality, disinfection.

Pompeyo Ferro, Eli Morales, Ana Lucia Ferró-Gonzáles, Sayda García-Caro, Polan F. Ferro-Gonzales, Euclides Ticona

The dominant axial force on reinforced concrete bridge columns may affect the ability of pillars to respond to various lateral excitations. This study aimed to analyze the strength of concrete, tensile behavior, and shear strength in the pillar structure of a bridge. The method used to identify the behavior of pillars is to separately analyze the internal capacity of the pillars according to the characteristics of concrete and steel quality, cross-sectional shape, and the configuration of the reinforcement installed in three sections along the pillar height. By checking the adequacy of the lap joints and the length of reinforcement distribution, we assume that the dominant pillar is in tension or compression. We also assume that the dominance of tension in the reinforcement joints is in anticipation of a tensile response in the reinforcement joints when bending behavior is dominant (for tall pillars). Curvature: Analyzing the relationship of force–lateral displacement by simulating the height of the pillars from 1 to 5 m and comparing it with the shear capacity of the pillars so that a confining reinforcement spacing of 50 mm is obtained both on the precast pile and the additional cast in situ pier has been increasing the compressive strength and strain of the pillars so that with a factored axial compressive force of 730 kN, it produces compressive stress at the effective cross-section of the pillar of 13 MPa, which means that the strength of the concrete on the pillars is still sufficient. The shear capacity of the pillar obtained by factored loading is from 17 to 86 kN, so the pillar is still safe from shear failure along its height.


Keywords: bridge, capacity, connection, precast pillar.

Hanafi Ashad

This study has two main objectives: 1) investigating the internal control factors that impact the operational efficiency of the Revenue Office in Thailand, and 2) assessing the organizational performance of Revenue Office personnel in Thailand, segmented according to their diverse work experiences. This study gathered data from 2,130 personnel of the Regional Revenue Office in Thailand, employing questionnaires as the primary data collection tool. The data were then analyzed to examine the relationships and impacts of various variables using multiple regression analysis and the test of difference of means (ANOVA), with a focus on statistical significance at the 0.05 level. The analysis revealed that internal control factors within the control environment, control activities, and information and communication significantly influence the organization’s operational efficiency in planning, operations, and monitoring and evaluation, demonstrating statistical significance at the 0.05 level. This study also discovered that personnel at the Revenue Office in Thailand, with varying lengths of work experience, exert differing impacts on the organization’s operational efficiency. Notably, the group of personnel with over 15 years of work experience demonstrated a higher average in operational efficiency than all other groups with less than 15 years of experience, a difference that was statistically significant at the 0.05 level.


Keywords: internal control, operational efficiency, Revenue Department in Thailand, work experience.

Pisit Potjanajaruwit, Somsak Klaysung, Krisakorn Sukavejworakit

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a chronic mental disorder with a lifetime risk of approximately 1%. It is characterized by a profound disruption in cognition, behavior, and sensation with heritability estimated at up to 80%. It is a disorder with a complex etiology that involves multiple and heterogeneous genetic factors. The polygenic model of genetic susceptibility of psychiatric diseases explains that genetic variants of multiple genes determine the overall risk of disease because of their multiplicative effect. Two subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels, cacna1c and cacnb2 genes, play important roles in balancing calcium in brain cells, and their single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated differently with schizophrenia risk in different ethnicities. Two SNPs (rs1006737 & 4765913) of the cacna1c gene and a SNP (rs12257556) of the cacnb2 gene have been associated with schizophrenia. In this study, confirmed diagnosed schizophrenia patients and age-matched healthy control subjects were analyzed for the association of SNPs (rs1006737, 4765913 & rs12257556) with schizophrenia risk in Pakistani patients. Both SNPs of the cacna1c gene (rs1006737 and rs4765913) showed significant association with schizophrenia risk in this population. Moreover, two haplotypes (AT and GA) out of four for SNPs (rs1006737, rs4765913) of cacna1c further verified their significant association with the risk of schizophrenia. For cacnb2 , no significant association with the risk of schizophrenia in the SNP (rs12257556) was observed. The results of this study offer compelling evidence of a strong link between cacna1c polymorphisms (individual variant & haplotypes) and schizophrenia risk in the Pakistani population.


Keywords: single-nucleotide polymorphisms, rs1006737, rs4765913, rs12257556.

Nabila Ghaffar, Asia Iqbal, Ayesha Mazhar, Faiza Ejaz, Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan, Nauman Mazhar, Munawar Saleem Ahmad, Riffat Mehboob, Muhammad Akram Tariq
Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences
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