Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences

The Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences is the leading Chinese academic journal that publishes articles in all areas of natural sciences. The Journal is meant to serve as a means of communication and discussion of important issues related to science and scientific activities. The Journal publishes only original articles in English which have international importance. In addition to full-length research articles, the Journal publishes review articles. Papers can be focused on fundamental research leading to new methods, or adaptation of existing methods for new applications.

Articles for the Journal are peer-reviewed by third-party reviewers who are selected from among specialists in the subject matter of peer-reviewed materials.

The Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences is a kind of forum for discussing issues and problems facing science and scholars, as well as an effective means of interaction between the members of the academic community. The Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences is read bya large number of scholars, and the circulation of the journal is constantly growing.

The Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences publishes special issues on various and relevant topics of interest to the scientific community.

The Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences is indexed by Web of Science, Scopus, Current Contents, Geobase and Chemical Abstracts.


Articles containing fundamental or applied scientific results in all areas of the natural sciences are accepted for consideration.

The Editorial Board of the Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences is composed of 25 members and is chaired by Academician Chen Zhengqing. Editor-in-chief is Prof. Yi Weijian.


Frequency of publication: monthly

ISSN: 1674-2974

Access to all articles on the website is open, does not require registration or payment.

Journal articles are licensed under the CC BY 4.0 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

The Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences takes care of maintaining electronic versions of articles. Data safety is ensured by backing up digital data in accordance with internal regulations. Logical and physical data migration is also provided. Cloud technologies are applied.

For further information, please contact:


Address: Lushan Road (S), Yuelu District, Changsha, Hunan Province, Zip Code: 410082 (Editorial Department of Journal)



Submission open for Volume 50, Issue 11, November, 2023

Dear Authors,

Please submit your manuscripts through our Online Submission System or directly to the Chief -Editor's e-mail
Deadline:  November 27 , 2023.

Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences is an international, peer-reviewed open - access journal on all aspects of natural sciences published monthly online.
Manuscripts are peer-reviewed. The first decision is given to authors about 20-30 days after submission; acceptance for publication after revisions is done within seven days.
Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences provides an advanced forum on all aspects of natural sciences. It publishes reviews, research papers, and communications. We aim to encourage scientists to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detail as possible. There is no restriction on the length of the papers. The full experimental details must be provided so that everyone can reproduce the results. Electronic files and software regarding the full details of the calculation or experimental procedure can be deposited as supplementary electronic material if unable to be published in a normal way.

The journal covers physics, chemistry, engineering, environmental, earth sciences and biology.

•    Biosciences and Bioengineering;
•    Computer and Information Science;
•    Chemistry;
•    Earth-Aerospace-Marine Science;
•    Electrical and Electronic Engineering;
•    Education;
•    Engineering;
•    Energy;
•    Environmental Sciences;
•    Economy;
•    Finance;
•    Materials Science;
•    Mathematics;
•    Medicine;
•    Neurosciences ;
•    Physics;
•    Pharmaceuticals.

The authors should prepare the articles strictly according to the template. Please check the link

All articles published in are published in full open access. In order to provide free access to readers, and to cover the costs of peer review, copyediting, typesetting, long-term archiving, and journal management, an article processing charge (APC) of EUR 430 applies to papers accepted after peer - review.
Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use our English editing service (EUR 70-100) prior to publication or during author revisions. The articles that native English speakers do not edit are not allowed for publication.
The journal publishes articles in English or Chinese.
Articles published in the Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences will be Open-Access articles distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The copyright is retained by the author(s).
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Last Research Articles

Thinking about the introduction of algebra in the first years of school implies, among other aspects, a transformation of the school mathematics curriculum and a change in the limited and traditional conceptions that are held about its teaching. This article characterizes the conceptions of a group of primary school teachers from public institutions of the Buenaventura District about the introduction of algebra from an early age based on the perspective of curricular change called early algebra. The research was of a qualitative nature through the hermeneutic phenomenological approach with which the teachers’ conceptions were described from their classroom and personal experiences in teaching algebra. The analysis of the teachers’ conceptions provided fundamental didactic elements about the advantages of reflecting on the importance of transforming the traditional practices of algebra teaching at school. It was found that the conception that one has regarding the teaching of mathematics and the disciplinary training that teachers have play an essential role in the design and implementation of tasks that promote the development of algebraic thinking in students from the first years of school.


Keywords: conceptions, teachers, primary education, early algebra.

Luis A. Alegría Salas, G. José R. González, Fernando Mesa

This study is situated within the framework of realistic mathematics education (RME) and presents a classroom proposal aimed at illuminating and modeling everyday periodic phenomena. Emphasis is placed on recognizing periodic functions as fundamental tools for characterizing the sine and cosine trigonometric functions. The investigation uses the concept of mathematization levels to delineate the transition from informal to formal knowledge through real-world problem-solving using the GeoGebra platform. This research was conducted with tenth-grade students at the San Vicente Educational Institution in the Buenaventura District. The outcomes reveal that students engaged in activities, and subsequent analyses demonstrate a nuanced understanding of periodic phenomena within realistic contexts. This comprehension encompasses proficiency in various representation systems, including tabular, graphical, and algebraic methods. Moreover, the process of progressing from informal to formal knowledge is marked by incremental levels of mathematization, encompassing both horizontal and vertical processes. The main focus of this research is to characterize the process of mathematization within a realistic context, particularly concerning the sine and cosine trigonometric functions, and evaluate the strengths and limitations of this approach. This study underscores the potential of RME for elucidating intricate mathematical modeling processes within real-world contexts. These insights underscore the value of integrating authentic scenarios to foster a comprehensive understanding of mathematical concepts. Challenges are also acknowledged, particularly in achieving the formalization of generalized models. Thus, this research contributes to discussions on effective mathematics education by showcasing the transformative potential of contextualized pedagogical strategies.


Keywords: realistic mathematics education, trigonometric functions, levels of mathematization, context, levels of understanding.

Fernando Mesa, Luis Antonio Alegría Salas, G. José Rodrigo González

The main objective of this paper is to present an approximate numerical solution of the Klein-Gordon equation. For this purpose, the basic concepts associated with the numerical method used to obtain the approximate solution will be presented initially. In our case, we considered as a hypothesis the fact that using the finite element method and in particular the Galerkin method, it is possible to perform a superb numerical approximation of the solution of the Klein-Gordon equation. For this purpose, we will present some of the solutions that have been obtained by employing the modified Adomian decomposition method, via a transformation and Exp-function method and comparison with Adomian's, and using the variational method. This will allow better understanding of the effectiveness of the finite element method because the solutions will be represented in space and time. The novelty results from the fact of being able to take the solutions known as initial and boundary conditions and observe that effectively at great lengths the solution stabilizes at zero and that over time the approximate solutions stabilize. Finally, the simulations obtained by the finite element method indicate that the Klein-Gordon equation is damped nonlinear, its solution stabilizes at  and  and for short times, the function remains close to zero.


Keywords: approximate solution, finite element method, nonlinear equation, the Klein-Gordon equation, the Galerkin solution.

Francisco J. Cardona-García, Fernando Mesa, José Rodrigo González Granada

In this study, we enter the field of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) and propose a novel approach to their solution. We employ the iterative Adomian decomposition method (ADM) to address a distinct subclass of nonlinear PDEs. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency and reliability of the ADM in handling complex mathematical models. To this end, we explore the convergence characteristics of the method when applied to the aforementioned class of equations. Our analysis sheds light on the intricate interplay between the iterative steps of the method and the underlying nonlinear dynamics, providing valuable insights into the behavior of the solution process. Through this investigation, we find noise terms in the context of inhomogeneous equations. We reveal that the presence of noise is intrinsically linked to the inherent heterogeneity of the equations, and its impact on convergence behavior is systematically elucidated. To validate the robustness and accuracy of the proposed method, we present a series of numerical results. These results not only underscore the reliability of the method in producing accurate solutions but also highlight its potential to overcome computational challenges associated with nonlinear PDEs. In summary, our study contributes to the broader picture of nonlinear PDE solvers by showing the potential of the Adomian decomposition method, especially in models involving noise terms and inhomogeneous equations.  The efficiency of this method is illustrated by investigating the convergence results for this equation. We show that the noise terms are conditional for nonhomogeneous equations, and the numerical results demonstrate the reliability and accuracy of the ADM.


Keywords: the Adomian method, noise terms, iterative method.

Diana Marcela Devia Narváez, Fernando Mesa, José Rodrigo González Granada

Risk management is frequently cited as one of the most important focuses for executives working in the financial industry. As a result, a great number of books and articles on risk management have been written. Regarding keeping track of a company’s risk profile and identifying opportunities to improve risk management practices, the importance of internal auditing in today’s rapidly evolving business climate cannot be underestimated. During the COVID-19 pandemic, this study investigated the impact of internal auditing and risk management on commercial banks listed on the Amman Stock Exchange. Only 198 of the 315 questionnaires that were sent out through email to various financial managers and accountants could be considered legitimate for the study. In addition, the data were evaluated using partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The findings indicated that an internal audit, an internal auditor, and the additional value of an internal audit are statistically substantially associated with risk management. This finding is consistent with the theory and our expectations. On the basis of these findings, the study recommended that more attention be paid to internal audit because of its importance in supporting the function of risk management through relevant specialized training courses and the provision of support to internal audit management in terms of trained and qualified human resources, both academically and practically, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. This recommendation was made because of the importance of internal audit in supporting the function of risk management through relevant specialized training courses.

Keywords: commercial banks, COVID-19 pandemic, partial least square structural equation modeling, risk management.


Haitham Yousef Ali, Ayman Saleh Mustafa Harb
Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences
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(e-ISSN: 1674-2974 )