Sacred Indicators of the Jakarta Cathedral Church, Indonesia, before the Second Vatican Council

Rudy Trisno, Fermanto Lianto, Franky Liauw, Damicia Tangyong, I Made Wahyudi Gelgel, Yasuhiro Hata


This research aims to determine the sacred indicators of the Cathedral Church before the Second Vatican Council. This research method was used quantitatively by taking 250 respondents as users and observers. The research findings are (1) Although the Cathedral Church building had been erected before the Second Vatican Council. There is a slight drawback, namely this church does not follow the Ideogram; (2) The expression of the Catholic church form can be considered sacred if its form follows the function by paying attention to the values of sacred indicators, both interior and exterior. Scientific findings in research are indicators of; Ideogram and Form follow function. So, searching for the intrinsic value of the sacredness of the Catholic Churches if one of these indicators is removed will reduce the sacredness of the Catholic Churches. This research is helpful for architectural practitioners and academics to find sacred indicators that can be added or removed if there is a change in the function of the building.


Keywords: sacred indicator, Jakarta cathedral church, second Vatican council, form follows function, ideogram.


Full Text:



TRISNO R., & LIANTO F. Catholic Church is the Divinity Symbol with Case Study of Santa Theresia Church in Jakarta, Indonesia. International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 2018, 10(3), 865-872.

SRISADONO Y. D. Konsep Sacred Space dalam Arsitektur Gereja Katolik (The Concept of Sacred Space in the Catholic Church Architecture). Journal Melintas, 2012, 28(2), 182-206.

SALURA P., FAUZY B., and TRISNO R. The relationship between architectural form and meaning in Santa Theresia Catholic Church, Jakarta, Indonesia. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 2019, 10(2), 2024-2031.

LUKKEN G., & SEARLE M. Semiotics and Church Architecture. Kok Pharos Publishing House, Netherlands, 1993.

PARKER T. K. The Modern Church in Rome: On the Interpretation of Architecture and Theological Identities, 1950-80. PhD Thesis, University of Texas, Austin, 2010.

TRISNO R., & LIANTO F. The Meaning of Natural Lighting on Altar Case Study: Cathedral Church And Church of The Light. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 2018, 209-213.

BARRIE T. The Sacred In-between The Mediating Roles of Architecture. Routledge, New York, 2010.

KUSBIANTORO K. Relationship Diversity, Spirit of Place, Religiosity Instinct Primordial and Trans-Gender Architecture of the Pohsarang Church: A Study. Universitas Katolik Parahyangan, Bandung, 2014.

HOFFMAN D. R. Seeking the Sacred in Contemporary Religious Architecture. The Kent State University Press, Kent, 2010.

NADAL C. D. S., & GALINGAN Z. D. Tracing the Urban Cultural Landscape Structure of Manila Sacred Space: A Case Study of Malate Church Grounds. A Journal of Architecture, Landscape Architecture and the Designed Environment, 2012, 4, 62-72.

TRISNO R., & LIANTO F. A Liturgical Relation with the Spatial Configuration and Architectural Form of The Catholic Church. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering, and Information Technology, 2020, 10(2), 843-851.

FAUZI I. A., PANGGABEAN S. R., ANCIK T. H., MUBARAK H., TESTRIONO, and NURHAYATI S. Church controversy in Jakarta and surrounding areas (Kontroversi Gereja di Jakarta dan sekitarnya). Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta, 2011.

ELIADE M. Scared and Profane. Fajar Pustaka Baru, Yogyakarta, 2002.

LITURGI K. General Guidelines for Roman Misale (Pedoman Umum Misale Romawi). Penerbit Nusa Indah, Ende, 2000.

JONES L. The Hermeneutics of Sacred Architecture Experience, Interpretation, Comparison, 1 & 2. Harvard University, Cambridge MA, 2000.

TRISNO R. Conformity between demands liturgy with spatial configuration and form of the building Catholic church architecture (Kesesuaian antara tuntutan liturgi dengan konfigurasi spasial dan bentuk bangunan arsitektur gereja Katolik). Universitas Katolik Parahyangan, Bandung, 2017.

ASHIARA Y. Exterior Design in Architecture. Van Nostrand Reinhold Inc, New York, 1971.

STROIK D. The Church Building as a Sacred Place: Beauty, Transcendence, and Eternal. Liturgy Training Publication, London, 2012.

MORGAN M. H. Vitruvius the Ten Books on Architecture. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA, 1914.

SOBUR A. Media Text Analysis: An Introduction to Discourse Analysis, Semiotic Analysis, and Framing Analysis (Analisis Teks Media: Suatu Pengantar untuk Analisis Wacana, Analisis Semiotik, dan Analisis Framing). Remaja Rosdakarya, Bandung, 2006.

JAKOBSON R. Typological studies and their contribution to historical comparative linguistics. In: GRUYTER W. D. (ed.) Phonological Studies. De Gruyter Mouton, Berlin, 2010, 523-532.

TERRAGNI G., TAFURI M., and EISENMAN P. Transformations, Decompositions, Critiques. Monacelli Press, New York, 2003.

LAZUTINA T. V., PUPYSHEVA I. N., SHCHERBININ M. N., BAKSEEV V. N., and PATRAKOVA G. V. Semiotics of Art: Language of Architecture as a Complex System of Signs. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 2016, 11(17), 9991-9998.

PROUST M. Remembrance of Things Past Trans. by C. K. Scott Moncrief and Terence Kilmartin. Vintage, New York, 2012.

MAROTTA A., SPALLONE R., TURCO M. L., ZICH U., VITALI M., MARCHIS E., and PAVIGNANO M. Visual Images and Language in Architecture: Signifier Semiotics, and Meaning Semiotics. Proceedings, 2017, 1(9), 64, 1-17.

CRESWELL J. W. Qualitative Research & Research Design: Choosing Among the Five Approaches. Pustaka Pelajar, Yogyakarta, 2014.

GULO W. Research methodology (Metodologi Penelitian). Grasindo, Jakarta, 2010.

CHAMPION D. J. Basic Statistics for Social Research. Macmillan Publishers Limited, London, 2011.

GERVAIS W. M. Perceiving Minds and Gods: How Mind Perception Enables, Constrains, and is Triggered. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2013, 8(4).

SEKARAN U., & BOUGIE R. Research Methods for Business A Skill-Building Approach, 7th ed. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 2016, 263-264.


  • There are currently no refbacks.