A Novel Approach: Routing Metric Using Level Crossing Rate for Device-to-Device Communication in a Multipath Fading Environment

Istikmal, Edwar, Indrarini Dyah Irawati


In the real world, device-to-device (D2D) communications in ad hoc networks often experience changes in signal quality. The change in path characteristics is caused by the distance and multipath fading between the transmitter and receiver, so that the amplitude and phase of the received signal vary over time. Consequently, the performance of the routing algorithm in determining uncertain communication paths causes a significant decrease in throughput. Therefore, calculating the fading rate and the fading signal frequency, which are below a threshold, becomes imperative. This mechanism is known as the level crossing rate (LCR). Here, we propose LCR as a novel metric model approach for routing in multipath fading environments to determine the communication path. Also, we created a model for estimating throughput based on the LCR. We evaluated and compared the performance of our proposed method to that of a routing model that uses the shortest path algorithm (SPA) and channel quality (CQ) aware routing that employs average signal-to-noise ratio (ASNR) and average power connection (APC) as the metric. The simulation results show that the proposed LCR routing model outperforms another routing model that applies SPA, ASNR, and APC.


Keywords: routing metric, level crossing rate, device-to-device communication, multipath fading.


Full Text:



TRIGUI I., & AFFES S. Unified Analysis and Optimization of D2D Communications in Cellular Networks Over Fading Channels. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2019, 67(1): 724-736. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCOMM.2018.2854613

SINGH I., JAISWAL R. K., KUMAR V., VERMA R., SINGH N. P., and SINGH G. Outage Probability of Device-to-Device Communication Underlaying Cellular Network over Nakagami/Rayleigh Fading Channels. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology - Signal and Information Processing, Nagpur, 2019, pp. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICETET-SIP-1946815.2019.9092306

HUSSAIN Z., UR REHMAN KHAN A., MEHDI H., SALEEM S. M. A., ARIF M., and HUSSAIN S. Effects of Interference on Device-to-Device Communication. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computing, Electronic and Electrical Engineering (ICE Cube), Quetta, 2018, pp. 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICECUBE.2018.8610965

CHUN Y. J., COTTON S. L., DHILLON H. S., GHRAYEB A., and HASNA M. O. A Stochastic Geometric Analysis of Device-to-Device Communications Operating Over Generalized Fading Channels. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2017, 16(7): 4151-4165. https://doi.org/10.1109/TWC.2017.2689759

MORENO-POZAS L., LOPEZ-MARTINEZ F. J., COTTON S. L., PARIS J. F., and MARTOS-NAYA E. Comments on “Human Body Shadowing in Cellular Device-to-Device Communications: Channel Modeling Using the Shadowed κ - μ Fading Model”. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 2017, 35(2): 517-520. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSAC.2016.2638658

AHMED S., KHAN Z. A., MUJEEB-UR-REHMAN, SAEED K., BAIG R., and KHAN R. Distributed Admission Control-QOS Algorithm to Improve Network Performance in MANET Environments. Proceedings of the 5th HCT Information Technology Trends, Dubai, 2018, pp. 292-299. https://doi.org/10.1109/CTIT.2018.8649552

DAS P., & SETH D. D. Performance analysis of routing protocols for adhoc network in a fading environment. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research, Chennai, 2016, pp. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCIC.2016.7919540

PEREIRA E. E. A., & LEONARDO, E. J. Performance Evaluation of DSR for MANETs with Channel Fading. International Journal of Wireless Information Networks, 2020, 27: 494–502. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10776-020-00481-9

ABADA D., MASSAQ A., and BOULOUZ A. Connecting VANETs to Internet over IEEE 80211p in a Nakagami fading channel. Proceedings of the International Conference on Wireless Technologies, Embedded and Intelligent Systems, Fez, 2017, pp. 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1109/WITS.2017.7934611

PU C. Link-Quality and Traffic-Load Aware Routing for UAV Ad Hoc Networks. Proceedings of the IEEE 4th International Conference on Collaboration and Internet Computing, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2018, pp. 71-79. https://doi.org/10.1109/CIC.2018.00-38

HE C., ZHANG K., HAN S., MENG W., and LI C. Analysis the energy consumption of three wireless vehicle transmission model in shadow-fading environment. Proceedings of the 13th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference, Valencia, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1109/IWCMC.2017.7986411

KRSTIC D. S., NIKOLIC P. B., VULIC I., MINIC S., and STEFANOVIC M. C. Performance of the Product of Three Nakagami-m Random Variables. Journal of Communications Software and Systems, 2020, 16(2): 122-130. https://doi.org/10.24138/jcomss.v16i2.989

ISTIKMAL, SUBEKTI A., PERDANA D., RIDHA MULDINA N., ARIFINDRA I., and SUSSI. Dynamic Source Routing and optimized Link State Routing Performance in Multipath Fading Environment with Dynamic Network Topology. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Information Technology, Information Systems and Electrical Engineering, Yogyakarta, 2019, pp. 373-378. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICITISEE48480.2019.9003887

CHEN G., TANG J., and COON J. P. Optimal Routing for Multihop Social-Based D2D Communications in the Internet of Things. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 2018, 5(3): 1880-1889. https://doi.org/10.1109/JIOT.2018.2817024

MU J., LIU X., and YI X. Simplified Energy-Balanced Alternative-Aware Routing Algorithm for Wireless Body Area Networks. IEEE Access, 2019, 7: 108295-108303. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2925909

AKTER S., & MANSOOR N. A Spectrum Aware Mobility Pattern Based Routing Protocol for CR-VANETs. Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, Seoul, 2020, pp. 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1109/WCNC45663.2020.9120760

ARAT F., & DEMIRCI S. Analysis of Spectrum Aware Routing Algorithms in CR Based IoT Devices. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computer Science and Engineering (UBMK), Samsun, 2019, pp. 751-756. https://doi.org/10.1109/UBMK.2019.8907031

BANY SALAMEH H., QAWASMEH R., and AL-AJLOUNI A. F. Routing With Intelligent Spectrum Assignment in Full-Duplex Cognitive Networks Under Varying Channel Conditions. IEEE Communications Letters, 2020, 24(4): 872-876. https://doi.org/10.1109/LCOMM.2020.2968445

HE S., XIE K., CHEN W., ZHANG D., and WEN J. Energy-Aware Routing for SWIPT in Multi-Hop Energy-Constrained Wireless Network. IEEE Access, 2018, 6: 17996-18008. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2820093

XU C., XIONG Z., HAN Z., ZHAO G., and YU S. Link Reliability-Based Adaptive Routing for Multilevel Vehicular Networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2020, 69(10): 11771-11785. https://doi.org/10.1109/TVT.2020.3018300

YAKOVLEVA T. Nonlinear Properties of the Rice Statistical Distribution: Theory and Applications in Stochastic Data Analysis. Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 2019, 7(11): 2767-2779. https://doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2019.711190

AGRAWAL D., & ZENG Q. Introduction to Wireless and Mobile Systems. 4th ed. Cengage Learning, Boston, Massachusetts, 2016.

YOO S. K., COTTON S. L., SOFOTASIOS P. C., MUHAIDAT S., and KARAGIANNIDIS G. K. Level Crossing Rate and Analysis Average Fade F Composite Fading Channels. IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, 2020, 9(3): 281-284. https://doi.org/10.1109/LWC.2019.2952343

ISTIKMAL E., & EDWAR. Level Crossing Rate Impact on Routing Performance in Adhoc Networks for Device-to-Device Communication. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Information Technology, Information Systems and Electrical Engineering, Yogyakarta, 2019, pp. 170-174. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICITISEE48480.2019.9003847

LE H. D., & PHAM A. T. Level Crossing Rate and Average Fade Duration of Satellite-to-UAV FSO Channels. IEEE Photonics Journal, 2021, 13(1): 7901514. https://doi.org/10.1109/JPHOT.2021.3057198

ISSAID C. B., & ALOUINI M.-S. Level Crossing Rate and Average Outage Duration of Free Space Optical Links. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2019, 67(9): 6234-6242. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCOMM.2019.2918324

SUN F., & JIANG Y. A Statistical Property of Wireless Channel Capacity: Theory and Application. ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review, 2017, 45(3): 97–108. https://doi.org/10.1145/3199524.3199543

MAHMOOD A., & JÄNTTI R. Packet Error Rate Analysis of Uncoded Schemes in Block-Fading Channels Using Extreme Value Theory. IEEE Communications Letters, 2017, 21(1): 208-211. https://doi.org/10.1109/LCOMM.2016.2615300

SHAPIN A. G., KLEYKO D. V., KRASHENINNIKOV P. V., and MELENTYEV O. G. An Algorithm for the Exact Packet Error Probability Calculation for Viterbi Decoding. Proceedings of the XIV International Scientific-Technical Conference on Actual Problems of Electronics Instrument Engineering, Novosibirsk, 2018, pp. 282-287. https://doi.org/10.1109/APEIE.2018.8545996

USMAN M., ASGHAR M. R., ANSARI I. S., QARAQE M., and GRANELLI F. An Energy Consumption Model for WiFi Direct Based D2D Communications. Proceedings of the IEEE Global Communications Conference, Abu Dhabi, 2018, pp. 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1109/GLOCOM.2018.8647905

WI-FI ALLIANCE. WIFI Direct, 2021. http://www.wi-fi.org/discover-wi-fi/wi-fi-direct

ABUGHALWA M., OMRI A., and HASNA M. O. On the Average Secrecy Outage Rate and Average Secrecy Outage Duration of Wiretap Channels with Rician Fading. Proceedings of the 14th International Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing Conference, Limassol, 2018, pp. 736-740. https://doi.org/10.1109/IWCMC.2018.8450528


  • There are currently no refbacks.