Nature-Nested Community Drives Innovation to Foster Sustainable Tourism

Krittawit Krittayaruangroj, Panat Trisuvan, Patcharin Sae-Heng, Pwint Nee Aung, Salil K. Sen


The pandemic has impacted tourism globally. This paper highlights the interconnectedness of tourism with other related segments and presents the need for innovation inspired by nature-nested communities to foster sustainable tourism. The novelty of this research is that leading community-driven innovation in sustainable tourism is an emerging field of research and there is a research gap that needs further conceptual development. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to extend the current body of knowledge on leadership’s premier role in channeling nature encased economic and societal resilience. The methodology adopted in the paper is qualitative synthesis of literature in the domain of Community-Based Tourism (CBT). Concepts on sustainable leadership for driving innovation are explored with the intended outcome of enhancing the ability to implement relevant sustainable development goals (SDGs). A systematic review of literature was used to identify relevant articles from the Scopus index for data extraction and analysis. The key findings highlighted five strategic practices which act as driving factors for innovation in sustainable CBT with emphasis on nature encasing. The five strategic practices include long term orientation, community participation, social innovation, sharing benefits, and stakeholder engagement. The discussion section critically evaluates the nature-nested practices that results in sustainable innovation. They are manifested as community-driven social innovation, boundary object, community-based quadruple-helix, living labs, and integrative environmental, social responsibility and corporate governance (ESG). Implications for future research directions provide the impetus for dynamics of community-based tourism.


Keywords: community-based tourism, sustainable innovation opportunities, environmental, social responsibility and corporate governance, Living Lab approach to sustainable leadership.



Full Text:



SURIYANKIETKAEW S. Taking the long view on resilience and sustainability with 5Cs at B. Grimm. Global Business and Organizational Excellence, 2019, 38(3): 11-17.

NUNKOO R. Toward a more comprehensive use of social exchange theory to study residents’ attitudes to tourism. Procedia Economics and Finance, 2016, 39: 588-596.

AYOB N., TEASDALE S., and FAGAN K. How social innovation ‘came to be’: Tracing the evolution of a contested concept. Journal of Social Policy, 2016, 45(4): 635-653.

MOSEDALE J., & VOLL F. Social Innovations in Tourism: Social practices contributing to social development. In: SHELDON P., & DANIELE R. (eds.) Social Entrepreneurship and Tourism. Tourism on the Verge. Springer, Cham, 2017: 101-115.

KANTABUTRA S. Achieving corporate sustainability: Toward a practical theory. Sustainability, 2019, 11(15): 4155.

STONE L. S., & NYAUPANE G. P. Local residents’ pride, tourists’ playground: The misrepresentation and exclusion of local residents in tourism. Current Issues in Tourism, 2020, 23(11): 1426-1442.

JERNSAND E. M. Student living labs as innovation arenas for sustainable tourism. Tourism Recreation Research, 2019, 44(3): 337-347.

LIANG H., FERNANDEZ D., and LARSEN M. Impact assessment and measurement with Sustainable Development Goals. Lee Kong Chian School of Business, Singapore, 2021.

SMITH I. R. The inconvenient truth about ESG. BNY Mellon, 2020.

THEPARAT C. NESDC warns of mounting job losses. Bangkok Post, 2021.

KOONNATHAMDEE P. A turning point for the service sector in Thailand. Asian Development Bank, Mandaluyong, 2013.

SUWANNARAT P. Agricultural productivity and poverty reduction in Thailand, 2011.

ADULWATTANA B., & PITAKARD B. Tourism: still a reliable driver of growth? Bangkok Bank, 2019.

SOSHKIN M, & FENTON I. How we can prioritize sustainability in rebuilding tourism. World Economic Forum, 2020.

PARPART E. Tourism Trap. Bangkok Post, 2019.

SEN S. K. Decovidization through Rurbanization: The Re-development Option for Sustainable Energy Access. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 2020, 10(5): 515-523.

BUSH A. What does the future hold for Thailand’s famous Maya Bay? Lonely Planet, 2020.

REGAN H., & OLARN K. Before the virus, Asia's ecosystems were buckling under overtourism. When the tourists return, it has to be different. Cable News Network, 2020.

THE WORLD TOURISM ORGANIZATION. Policy and Destination Management, 2021.

RAŠOVSKÁ I., KUBICKOVA M., and RYGLOVÁ K. Importance–performance analysis approach to destination management. Tourism Economics, 2021, 27(4): 777-794.

PRESENZA A., SHEEHAN L., and RITCHIE J. B. Towards a model of the roles and activities of destination management organizations. Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure Science, 2005, 3(1): 1-16.

GÖSSLING S., & HIGHAM J. The low-carbon imperative: Destination management under urgent climate change. Journal of Travel Research, 2021, 60(6): 1167-1179.

DELLA CORTE V., D’ANDREA C., SAVASTANO I., and ZAMPARELLI P. Smart cities and destination management: Impacts and opportunities for tourism competitiveness. European Journal of Tourism Research, 2017, 17: 7-27.

KASEMSUK N. Second tier more than second best. Bangkok Post, 2019.

MURPHY P. E. Community driven tourism planning. Tourism Management, 1988, 9(2): 96-104.

MURPHY P. E. Tourism: A community approach (RLE Tourism). Routledge, London, 2013.

LINNENLUECKE M. K., MARRONE M., and SINGH A. K. Conducting systematic literature reviews and bibliometric analyses. Australian Journal of Management, 2020, 45(2): 175-194.

HALLINGER P. A conceptual framework for systematic reviews of research in educational leadership and management. Journal of Educational Administration, 2012, 51(2): 126-149.

HARDILLA D., BASUKI K. H., RUSMIATI F., and PERSADA C. The Tourism Concept of Emergency Shelter: Strategies for Community Resilience in the Coastal Area of South Lampung. International Conference on Sustainable Biomass, 2021, pp. 126-130.

SINGGALEN Y. A., SASONGKO G., and WILOSO P. G. Community participation in regional tourism development: a case study in North Halmahera Regency - Indonesia. Insights into Regional Development, 2019, 1(4): 318-333.

GIAMPICCOLI A., & SAAYMAN M. Community-based tourism development model and community participation. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 2018, 7: 1–27.

AP J. Residents' perceptions on tourism impacts. Annals of Tourism Research, 1992, 19(4): 665-690.

BLAPP M., & MITAS O. Creative tourism in Balinese rural communities. Current Issues in Tourism, 2018, 21(11): 1285-1311.

LEADBEATER C. The socially entrepreneurial city. In: NICHOLLS A. (ed.) Social Entrepreneurship: New Models of Sustainable Social Change. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006: 233-246.

MCCABE S. “Tourism for all?” Considering social tourism: a perspective paper. Tourism Review, 2020, 75(1): 61-64.

DEL GIUDICE M., & MAGGIONI V. Managerial practices and operative directions of knowledge management within inter-firm networks: a global view. Journal of Knowledge Management, 2014, 18(5): 841-846.

CHIM-MIKI A. F., & BATISTA-CANINO R. M. Tourism coopetition: An introduction to the subject and a research agenda. International Business Review, 2017, 26(6): 1208-1217.

PORTER M.E., & KRAMER M. R. Creating shared value. Harvard Business Review, 2011, 89(1/2): 62-77.

CZAKON W., & CZERNEK K. The role of trust-building mechanisms in entering into network coopetition: The case of tourism networks in Poland. Industrial Marketing Management, 2016, 57: 64-74.

KONTOGEORGOPOULOS N., CHURYEN A., and DUANGSAENG V. Success factors in community-based tourism in Thailand: The role of luck, external support, and local leadership. Tourism Planning & Development, 2014, 11(1): 106-124.

EOM T., YU J., and HAN H. Medical tourism in Korea – recent phenomena, emerging markets, potential threats, and challenge factors: A review. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 2019, 24(6): 563-573.

HARRISON D., & SCHIPANI S. Lao tourism and poverty alleviation: Community-based tourism and the private sector. Current Issues in Tourism, 2007, 10(2-3): 194-230.

DE BOER D., & VAN DIJK M. P. Success factors for community business wildlife tourism partnerships in Tanzania. The European Journal of Development Research, 2016, 28: 360.

NEUMEIER S. Why do social innovations in rural development matter and should they be considered more seriously in rural development research? - Proposal for a stronger focus on social innovations in rural development research. Sociologia Ruralis, 2012, 52(1): 48-69.

TRUNFIO M., & CAMPANA S. Drivers and emerging innovations in knowledge-based destinations: Towards a research agenda. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 2019, 14: 100370.

NORDBERG K., MARIUSSEN Å., and VIRKKALA S. Community-driven social innovation and quadruple helix coordination in rural development. Case study on LEADER group Aktion Österbotten. Journal of Rural Studies, 2020, 79: 157-168.

LIU J., QU H., HUANG D., CHEN G., YUE X., ZHAO X., and LIANG Z. The role of social capital in encouraging residents' pro-environmental behaviors in community-based ecotourism. Tourism Management, 2014, 41(1): 190-201.

ROPER S., & LOVE J. H. Knowledge context, learning. and innovation: an integrating framework. Industry and Innovation, 2018, 25(4): 339-364.

REED M. S. Stakeholder participation for environmental management: A literature review. Biological Conservation, 2008, 141(10): 2417-2431.

TOLKACH D., & KING B. Strengthening Community-Based Tourism in a new resource-based island nation: Why and how? Tourism Management, 2015, 48: 386-398.

STAR S. This is not a boundary Object: Reflections on the origin of a concept. Science, Technology & Human Values, 2010, 35(5): 601-617.

DELLA LUCIA M., & TRUNFIO M. The role of the private actor in cultural regeneration: Hybridizing cultural heritage with creativity in the city. Cities, 2018, 82: 35-44.

INGRAM J., MILLS J., DIBARI C., FERRISE R., GHALEY B. B., HANSEN J. G., IGLESIAS A., KARACZUN Z., MCVITTIE A., MERANTE P., MOLNAR A., and SÁNCHEZ B. Communicating soil carbon science to farmers: Incorporating credibility, salience and legitimacy. Journal of Rural Studies, 2016, 48: 115-128.

WHITE D. D., WUTICH A., LARSON K. L., GOBER P., LANT T., and SENNEVILLE C. Credibility, salience, and legitimacy of boundary objects: Water managers’ assessment of a simulation model in an immersive decision theater. Science and Public Policy, 2010, 37(3): 219-232.

KOLEHMAINEN J., IRVINE J., STEWART L., KARACSONYI Z., SZAB´O T., ALARINTA J., and NORBERG A. Quadruple helix, innovation and the knowledge-based development: Lessons from remote, rural and less-favoured regions. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 2016, 7(1): 23–42.

LEYDESDORFF L., ETZKOWITZ H., IVANOVA I., and MEYER M. The measurement of synergy in innovation systems: redundancy generation in a triple helix of university-industry-government relations. In: Springer Handbook of Science and Technology Indicators. Springer, Heidelberg, 2017.

DARGAN L., & SHUCKSMITH M. LEADER and innovation. Sociologia Ruralis, 2008, 48(3): 274-291.

PARK S. Seeking changes in ivory towers: The impact of gender quotas on female academics in higher education. Women's Studies International Forum, 2020, 79: 102346-1-102346-9.

TANG H., MA Z., XIAO J., and XIAO L. Toward a more efficient knowledge network in innovation ecosystems: A simulated study on knowledge management. Sustainability, 2020, 12(16): 6328.

HARDY A., VOROBJOVAS-PINTA O., and ECCLESTON R. Enhancing knowledge transfer in tourism: An elaboration likelihood model approach. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 2018, 37: 33-41.

BARAN G., & BERKOWICZ A. Sustainability living labs as a methodological approach to research on the cultural drivers of sustainable development. Sustainability, 2020, 12: 4835.

LEAL FILHO W. Living labs for sustainable development: The role of the European school of sustainability sciences and research. In: FILHO W. L., SALVIA A. L., PRETORIUS R. W., BRANDLI L. L., MANOLAS E., ALVES F., AZEITEIRO U., ROGERS J., SHIEL C., and DO PACO A. (eds.) Universities as Living Labs for Sustainable Development. World Sustainability Series. Springer, Cham, 2020: 3-9.

FAM D., LOPES A. M., ROSS K., and CROSBY A. The transdisciplinary living lab model (TDLL). In: FILHO W. L., SALVIA A. L., PRETORIUS R. W., BRANDLI L. L., MANOLAS E., ALVES F., AZEITEIRO U., ROGERS J., SHIEL C., and DO PACO A. (eds.) Universities as Living Labs for Sustainable Development. World Sustainability Series. Springer, Cham, 2020: 167-182.

EVANS J., JONES R., KARVONEN A., MILLARD L., and WENDLER J. Living labs and co-production: University campuses as platforms for sustainability science. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 2015, 16: 1-6.

YANG X., LI H., CHEN W., and FU H. Corporate community involvement and Chinese rural tourist destination sustainability. Sustainability, 2019, 11(6): 1574.

EY INDIA. Risk, returns and resilience: Integrating ESG in the financial sector, 2020.

NELSON T. ESG, climate change risk and disclosure. Governance Directions, 2018, 70(11).

OLDANI M. R., & TIMOTIĆ I. Sustainable finance (ESG, SDG & climate) - risks & opportunities for banks and institutions. Reply Advantage, 2020.

DÍAZ V., IBRUSHI D., and ZHAO J. Reconsidering systematic factors during the COVID-19 pandemic – The rising importance of ESG. Finance Research Letters, 2021, 38: 101870.

ADAMS C. A., & ABHAYAWANSA S. Connecting the COVID-19 pandemic, environmental, social and governance (ESG) investing and calls for ‘harmonisation’ of sustainability reporting. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 2021, 102309.

TALIENTO M., FAVINO C., and NETTI A. Impact of environmental, social, and governance information on economic performance: Evidence of a corporate ‘sustainability advantage’ from Europe. Sustainability, 2019, 11(6): 1738.

BANERJEE R., GUPTA K., and MCIVER R. What matters most to firm-level environmentally sustainable practices: firm–specific or country–level factors? Journal of Cleaner Production, 2019, 218: 225-240.

CAI W., SANTOSO A., WANG G., YEH S.-W., AN S.-I., COBB K.M., COLLINS M., GUILYARDI E., JIN F.-F., KUG J.-S., LENGAIGNE M., MCPHADEN M. J., TAKAHASHI K., TIMMERMANN A., VECCHI G., WATANABE M., and WU L. ENSO and greenhouse warming. Nature Climate Change, 2015, 5(9): 849–859.

AMIN S., PRAMONO S. E., ATNO, and KURNIAWAN G. F. A Model for Promoting Inclusive and Sustainable Tourism in Kota Lama Semarang. Journal of Southwest Jiaotong University, 2020, 55(5).

SUNARDI, ROEDJINANDARI N., and ESTIKOWATI. Analysis of Sustainable Tourism Development in Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park. Journal of Southwest Jiaotong University, 2019, 54(6).

OTANI A., & DAVIES P. J. Stocks Meander around Flat Line; S&P Inches Lower. Wall Street Journal, 2019.


  • There are currently no refbacks.