Animal Contributions to Immunology: An Opinion

Ibrahim M.S. Shnawa


Animal models are invaluable to studies aiming to improve the well-being of human beings, particularly in the science of immunology. Traditionally, mice models have been used for both immunology research and teaching. Scientists worldwide have proposed other animal models that can contribute to the study of immunology. The objective of this opinion paper is to identify the contributions of invertebrate and vertebrate animals to the science of immunology. Immune features are categorized into nine major groups according to how they contribute, as follows: in vitro investigations, in vivo investigation, for development, as models, in discoveries, in the study of evolution, for therapeutics, for protection, and in the study of specific phenomena. A detailed description of the immune system and its evolutionary development is provided. Piscan, anuran, avian, and lapin immune models are suggested based on our research and those of others as alternatives to the traditional mice model.


Keywords: animal, contribution, immunology, models, mice.

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