Zoning Design for the Protected Conservation Area of Pinang, Siumat and Simanaha Waters (PISISI) in Simeulue District, Aceh

Muhammad Irham, Fauzan Aulia, Muhammad Rusdi, Tarmizi Tarmizi, Anwar Delli, Indra Indra, Muhammad Authar ND


Simeulue District has several conservation areas, including the Pinang, Siumat, Simanaha (PISISI) marine conservation area. To maximize the management of the marine protected area (MPA) of PISISI, which has been reserved by the Government of Aceh, it is necessary to analyze the management and zoning plan, especially in determining the location of the core zone (no-take zone). The core zone determination is the most important part in planning to protect coastal areas as a manifestation of sustainable management of fish resources and the environment. The research purpose is to determine the location of the no-take zone based on conservation targets that have high biodiversity value, analyze the optimum size of the no-take zone, and determine the zoning design in the MPA of PISISI, Simeulue District. Therefore, the Marxan model was used in this study, which is the most widely used MRA zoning design and planning tool. However, Marxan was unable to determine the priority location of conservation areas and the optimum size of the no-take zone. For this reason, a combination of Marxan and the MPA Size Optimization Tool was used. The study at the MPA of PISISI is an example of how the information generated by these two tools becomes a reference or a model that will be applied to other MRAs that have not yet compiled a zoning plan. The zoning results lead to a no-take zone proposal divided into eight sections with a size of 3 km which was obtained from the consideration of the home ranges of 55 high-economic fish species found in the MPA of PISISI. Based on the results of the analysis of the two instruments, the proposed core zone area is 5.14%, which meets the requirements of Marine and Fisheries Ministerial Regulation Number 30 Year 2010 stating that each marine conservation area must have a core zone with an area of at least 2% of the total area.



Keywords: marine conservation areas, Marxan model, MPA Size Optimization Tool, core zone, no-take zone.


Full Text:



FABRICIUS K.E., WILD C., WOLANSKI E., and ABELE D. Effects of transparent exopolymer particles and muddy terrigenous sediments on the survival of hard coral recruits. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 2003, 57: 613-621.

RICHARDSON E.A., KAISER M.J., EDWARDS‐JONES G., and POSSINGHAM H.P. Sensitivity of marine‐reserve design to the spatial resolution of socioeconomic data. Conservation Biology, 2006б 20: 1191-1202.

TEH L.C. and SUMAILA U.R. Contribution of marine fisheries to worldwide employment. Fish and Fisheries, 2013, 14: 77-88.

DEVALLE S.B. Words of the Lagoon, Fishing and Marine Lore in the Palau District of Micronesia. JSTOR, 2004.

CHATTERJEE S. An analysis of threats to marine biodiversity and aquatic ecosystems. Working paper, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2964468

BARLEY S.C., MEEKAN M.G., and MEEUWIG J.J. Species diversity, abundance, biomass, size and trophic structure of fish on coral reefs in relation to shark abundance. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2017, 565: 163-179.

COHEN P.J. and FOALE S.J. Sustaining small-scale fisheries with periodically harvested marine reserves. Marine Policy, 2013, 37: 278-287.

HARRISON H.B., WILLIAMSON D.H., EVANS R.D., ALMANY G.R., et al. Larval export from marine reserves and the recruitment benefit for fish and fisheries. Current biology, 2012, 22: 1023-1028.

CANALES T.M., DELIUS G.W., and LAW R. Regulation of fish stocks without stock–recruitment relationships: The case of small pelagic fish. Fish and Fisheries, 2020, 21: 857-871.

MUMBY P. J., HARBORNE A. R., WILLIAMS J., KAPPEL C. V., et al. Trophic cascade facilitates coral recruitment in a marine reserve. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2007, 104: 8362-8367.

WHITE A. T., ALIÑO P. M., CROS A., FATAN N. A., et al. Marine protected areas in the Coral Triangle: progress, issues, and options. Coastal Management, 2014, 42: 87-106.

SMITH A. D., SMITH D.C., TUCK G. N., KLAER N., et al. Experience in implementing harvest strategies in Australia's south-eastern fisheries. Fisheries Research, 2008, 94: 373-379.

LESTER S. E., HALPERN B. S., GRORUD-COLVERT K., LUBCHENCO J., et al. Biological effects within no-take marine reserves: a global synthesis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2009, 384: 33-46.

MARGULES C. R. and PRESSEY R. L. Systematic conservation planning. Nature, 2000, 405: 243-253.

COSTA M. and BARLETTA M. Special challenges in the conservation of fishes and aquatic environments of South America. Journal of Fish Biology, 2016, 89: 4-11.

LESLIE H., RUCKELSHAUS M., BALL I. R., ANDELMAN S., and POSSINGHAM H. P. Using siting algorithms in the design of marine reserve networks. Ecological applications, 2003, 13: 185-198.

DARMAWAN D. R. D. and ANNA A. N. Identifikasi Lokasi Prioritas Konservasi Pesisir dan Pulau-pulau Kecil di Provinsi Maluku Berdasarkan Konektivitas Darat-Laut. Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, 2018.

ANGGRAENI D., HANDAYANI C. N., DANIEL D., WAHYUDI A., et al., Determining Zones of Nine Marine Protected Areas in Sulawesi Tenggara Province. Coastal and Ocean Journal, 2018, 1(2): 53-62.

WATTS M. E., BALL I. R., STEWART R. S., KLEIN C. J., et al. Marxan with Zones: Software for optimal conservation based land-and sea-use zoning. Environmental Modelling & Software, 2009, 24: 1513-1521.

COLLIE J. S., BECK M. W., CRAIG B., ESSINGTON T. E., et al. Marine spatial planning in practice. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 2013, 117: 1-11.

GREEN A. L., MAYPA A. P., ALMANY G. R., RHODES K. L., et al. Larval dispersal and movement patterns of coral reef fishes, and implications for marine reserve network design. Biological Reviews, 2015, 90: 1215-1247.

POSSINGHAM H., BALL I., and ANDELMAN S. Mathematical methods for identifying representative reserve networks. In Quantitative methods for conservation biology, 2000: 291-306, Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-22648-6_17

FERSON S. and BURGMAN M. (Eds.) Quantitative methods for conservation biology: Springer Science & Business Media, 2006.

LOOS S. A. Exploration of MARXAN for utility in Marine Protected Area zoning. University of Victoria, BC, Canada. Ph.D. Thesis, 2006.

KRUECK N. C., LEGRAND C., AHMADIA G. N., GREEN A., et al., "Reserve sizes needed to protect coral reef fishes," Conservation letters, 2018, 11, p. e12415.

BECK M. W., HECK K. L., ABLE K. W., CHILDERS D. L., et al. The identification, conservation, and management of estuarine and marine nurseries for fish and invertebrates: a better understanding of the habitats that serve as nurseries for marine species and the factors that create site-specific variability in nursery quality will improve conservation and management of these areas. Bioscience, 2001, 51: 633-641.

HANDAYANI C. N. N., ESTRADIVARI E., DANIEL D., HADIAN O., et al. Identification of conservation priority location in Indonesia based on land-sea connectivity. Coastal and Ocean Journal, 2017, 1(2): 13-26.

NAINGGOLAN P. Distribusi spasial dan pengelolaan lamun (seagrass) di teluk bakau, kepulauan Riau. Skripsi, IPB. Bogor, 2011.


  • There are currently no refbacks.