Microstructure Study for Effect of Local Admixture in Concrete Durability

Mostafa Abd Elrazek


Concrete permeability plays the main role in concrete durability because of the entry of harmful substances such as chlorides, sulfates, carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2). Concrete permeability is affected by factors such as size and proportion of aggregate, type, and quantity of cement, water-cement ratio, type and dose of admixture used, which help concrete have a high life. This research aims to investigate the effect of local admixture prepared to improve concrete properties, especially reducing the permeability of concrete using its proven effectiveness in salt attack. This research studies the effect of this admixture on concrete microstructure for several concrete specimens. This chemical admixture, which contains calcium oxide (CaO), chloride (Cl), and others, helps obtain a good performance of concrete. Adding calcium oxide (CaO) plays an important role in improving the physicochemical properties of concrete. An increase in the compressive strength was observed for all specimens. Incorporating additives without CaO to concrete has been shown to decrease its strength. In the present study, concrete showed higher compressive strength than other concrete, which has not contain this admixture which may be explained by the larger quantity of CaO in the cement.


Keywords: concrete, microstructure, admixtures, durability, scanning electron microscope.




Full Text:



APPAH D., and REICHETSEDER P. Selection and use of CaO-expanding cements. Energy exploration and exploitation, 2001, 19(6), 581-591.

TAYLOR H.F. Cement chemistry. Volume 2. Thomas Telford, London, 1997.

HILAL A.A. Microstructure of Concrete. High Performance Concrete Technology and Applications. InTech, Rijeka, Croatia. 2016. DOI: 10.5772/64574

JI T. Preliminary study on the water permeability and microstructure of concrete incorporating nano-SiO2. Cement and Concrete Research, 2005 35(10), 1943-1947.

NURUDDIN F., DEMIE S., MEMON F.A., and SHAFIQ N. Effect of superplasticizer and NaOH molarity on workability, compressive strength and microstructure properties of self-compacting geopolymer concrete. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2011, 75.

KARAGÖL F., DEMIRBOĞA R., KAYGUSUZ M.A., YADOLLAHI M.M., and POLAT R. The influence of calcium nitrate as antifreeze admixture on the compressive strength of concrete exposed to low temperatures. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 2013, 89: 30-35.

SHERZAD H. Effects of Mineral Admixture On Concrete. Academia, 2015 [Online] Available from: http://www.academia.edu/1049451/Effects_Of_Mineral_Admixture_On_Concrete

IMAM M. Concrete. Mansoura University. (n.d.). ISBN 977-5069 - 50- 5.

GANJIAN E., KHORAMI M., and MAGHSOUDI A.A. Scrap-tyre-rubber replacement for aggregate and filler in concrete. Construction and building materials, 2009, 23(5), 1828-1836.

POON C.S., and CHAN D. The use of recycled aggregate in concrete in Hong Kong. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 2007, 50(3): 293-305.

KUMARA M.P., MINIA K.M., and RANGARAJAN M. Ultrafine GGBS and calcium nitrate as concrete admixtures for improved mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Construction and Building Materials, 2018, 182: 249-257.

ALNAHHAL M.F., ALENGARAM U.J., JUMAAT M.Z., ALSUBARI B., ALQEDRA M.A., and MO K.H. Effect of aggressive chemicals on durability and microstructure properties of concrete containing crushed new concrete aggregate and non-traditional supplementary cementitious materials. Construction and Building Materials, 2018, 163, 482-495.

AMIN M., and TAYEH B.A. Investigating the mechanical and microstructure properties of fibre-reinforced lightweight concrete under elevated temperatures. Case Studies in Construction Materials, 2020: e00459.

KALIFA P., CHÉNÉ G., and GALLÉ C. High-temperature behaviour of HPC with polypropylene fibres – from spalling to microstructure. Cement and Concrete Research, 2001, 31(10): 1487-1499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(01)00596-8

KAZE R.C., BELEUK L.M., MOUNGAM A., CANNIO M., ROSA R., KAMSEU E., MELO U.C., and LEONELLI C. Microstructure and engineering properties of Fe2O3(FeO)-Al2O3-SiO2 based geopolymer composites. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2018, 199: 849-859. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.07.171

ADESANYA E., OHENOJA K., YLINIEMI J., and ILLIKAINEN M. Mechanical transformation of phyllite mineralogy toward its use as alkali-activated binder precursor. Minerals Engineering, 2020, 145: 106093. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mineng.2019.106093

ABED M., NEMES R., and TAYEH B.A. Properties of self-compacting high-strength concrete containing multiple use of recycled aggregate. Journal of King Saud University –Engineering Sciences, 2020, 32(2): 108-114.

AHMED A.M., RASHWAN M.M., and RAZEK M.A. Performance of a Local Proposed Economical Additive on the Cement Mortar Properties Affected by Aggressive Environmental Conditions. Journal of Engineering Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, 2013, 41(2), 421-440.‏

TIAN W., and HAN N. Pore characteristics (>0.1 mm) of non-air entrained concrete destroyed by freeze-thaw cycles based on CT scanning and 3D printing. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 2018, 151, 314–322.

LUBLÓY É., KOPECSKÓ K., BALÁZS G.L., RESTÁS Á., and SZILÁGYI I.M. Improved fire resistance by using Portland-puzzolana of Portland fly ash cements. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 2017, 1: 1-12

BONIFAZI G., CAPOBIANCO G., SERRANTI S., EGGIMANN M., WAGNER E., DI MAIO F., and LOTFI S. The ITZ in concrete with natural and recycled aggregates: study of microstructures based on image and SEM analysis. In: Proceedings of the 15th Euroseminar on microscopy applied to building materials. Delft University of Technology, 2015: 299-308.


  • There are currently no refbacks.