Knowledge, Attitude, and Readiness to Practice Disaster Preparedness among University Health Students: Insights from Resource-Poor Setting

Mohammed Alshakka, Wafa F Badulla, Nazeh Al-Abd, Shuhd Alawi, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim


University health students as future healthcare personnel need to be prepared to play a vital role in disaster management. Therefore, knowledge, skills, and training in emergencies and disasters are imperative for effective responses. However, their knowledge, attitude, and readiness to practice levels of disaster medicine are not well studied in Yemen. This study aimed to evaluate the current knowledge, attitude, and readiness to practice (KArP) regarding disaster medicine management and preparedness among Yemeni health students. A cross-sectional study was conducted among health students at Aden University. A validated structured questionnaire on the KArP level of disaster medicine was used in the survey. In addition to descriptive statistics, parametric tests (independent t-tests, one-way ANOVA, two-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression analysis) or nonparametric tests were used when appropriate. P-values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Two hundred fifty health students participated in this study. The levels of knowledge, attitude, and readiness to practice were moderate. Knowledge and attitude levels are significantly correlated and predict readiness to practice. The levels of knowledge, positive attitude, and readiness to practice among the healthcare students regarding disaster management and preparedness were moderate, i.e., far from highly satisfactory. Novelty/Improvement: This study provides insight into the importance of including disaster management education and training in university curricula.


Keywords: disaster medicine, health professional students, knowledge, attitude, readiness to practice.


Full Text:



INSURANCE INFORMATION INSTITUTE. Facts + Statistics: Global catastrophes, 2021. [Online] Available from:

OUR WORLD IN DATA. Number of recorded natural disaster events: all natural disasters, 1900 to 2019. [Online] Available from:

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION/ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE AGENCY. Disasters & emergencies. 2002. [Online] Available from:

PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION REGIONAL OFFICE OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. Principles of Disaster Mitigation in Health Facilities. 4th ed. Washington, 2000, 2: 7-21. [Online] Available from:

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. Yemen: SnapShot of Health Facilities based Reported Deaths and Injuries. Mar 19, 2015 - Jul 15, 2017. [Online] Available from:

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. Media center. [Online] Available from: news/releases/2017/cholera-yemen-mark/en

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. Regional Office for Eastern Mediterranean. [Online] Available from: update_Yemen_February_2018.pdf?ua=1


INFORM 2017 RISK INDEX. Yemen disaster and risk profile. Prevention web. [Online] Available from:

ALRAZEENI D. Saudi EMS Students’ Perception of and Attitudes toward their Preparedness for Disaster Management. Journal of Education and Practice, 2015, 6(35): 110-116.

INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES. Disaster preparedness [Online] Available from: do/disaster-and-crisis-management/disaster-preparedness

INGRASSIA P.L., FOLETTI M., DJALALI A, SCARONE P., RAGAZZONI L., CORTE F.., KAPTAN K., LUPESCU O., ARCULEO CHRIS, and VON ARNIM G. Education and training initiatives for crisis management in the European Union: a web-based analysis of available programs. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 2014, 29(2): 115-26.

NASER W.N., INGRASSIA P.L., ALADHRAE S., and ABULRAHEEM W.A. A Study of Hospital Disaster Preparedness in South Yemen. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 2018, 19.

ALADHRAI S.A., DJALALI A., CORTE F.D., ALSABRI M., EL-BAKRI N.K., and INGRASSIA P.L. An Impact of the 2011 Revolution on Hospital Disaster Preparedness in Yemen. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 2015, 9(4): 396-402.

NASER W.N., and SALEEM H.B. Emergency and disaster management training; knowledge and attitude of Yemeni health professionals- a cross-sectional study. BMC Emergency Medicine, 2018, 18: 23.

AL-ZIFTAWI N., ELAMIN F., and IBRAHIM M.M.I. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and readiness to practice regarding disaster medicine and preparedness among university health students. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 2020, 15(3): 316-324. DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.157

GILLANI A.H., IBRAHIM M.M.I., AKBAR J., and FANG Y. Evaluation of disaster medicine preparedness among healthcare profession students: a cross-sectional study in Pakistan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2020, 17: 2027.

FABRIGAR L.R., PETTY R.E., SMITH S.M., and CRITES S.L. Understanding knowledge effects on attitude-behavior consistency: The role of relevance, complexity, and amount of knowledge. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2006, 90(4): 556-577.

DEUTSCHE WELLE AKADEMIE. Yemen is "the biggest humanitarian disaster in the world." [Online] Available from:

UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME. Volunteerism and Disasters. An Extract from the 2011 State of the World's Volunteerism Report. UN Volunteers, New York, 2012.

MURPHY J.P., KURLAND L., RÅDESTAD M., MAGNUSSON S., RINGQVIST T., and RÜTER A. Emergency department registered nurses overestimate their disaster competency: A cross-sectional study. International Emergency Nursing, 2021, 58: 101019. DOI: 10.1016/j.ienj.2021.101019

JOSE M.M., and DUFRENE C. Educational competencies and technologies for disaster preparedness in undergraduate nursing education: an integrative review. Nurse Education Today, 2014, 34(4): 543-551. http://

LOKE A., and FUNG O. Nurses’ competencies in disaster nursing: implications for curriculum development and public health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2014, 11(3): 3289-3303.

WIESNER L., KAPPLER S., SHUSTER A., DELUCA M., OTT J., and GLASSER E. Disaster Training in 24 Hours: Evaluation of a Novel Medical Student Curriculum in Disaster Medicine. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2018, 54(3): 348-353. DOI: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2017.12.008

SUJARWO, NOORHAMDANI, and FATHONI M. Disaster Risk Reduction in Schools: The Relationship of Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Preparedness from Elementary School Students in School-Based Disaster Preparedness in the Mentawai Islands, Indonesia. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 2018, 33(6). DOI: 10.1017/S1049023X18000778

KIM T.E., SHANKEL T., REIBLING E.T., PAIK J., WRIGHT D., BUCKMAN M., WILD K., NGO E., HAYATSHAHI A., NGUYEN L.H., DENMARK T.K., and THOMAS T.L. Healthcare students interprofessional critical event/disaster response course. American Journal of Disaster Medicine, 2017, 12(1): 11-26. DOI: 10.5055/ajdm.2017.0254.

OLU O., USMAN A., KALAMBAY K., ANYANGWE S., VOYI K., ORACH C.G., AZAZH A., MAPATANO M.A. NSENGA N., MANGA L., WOLDETSADIK S., NGUESSAN F. and BENSON A. What should the African health workforce know about disasters? Proposed competencies for strengthening public health disaster risk management education in Africa. BMC Medical Education, 2018, 18(1): 60. DOI: 10.1186/s12909-018-1163-9.

SCOTT L.A., CARSON D.S., and GREEN I.B.. Disaster 101: a novel approach to disaster medicine training for health professionals. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2010, 39(2): 220-226.

KIM M., and HUNTER J.E. Attitude-behavior relations: A meta-analysis of attitudinal relevance and topic. Journal of Communication, 1993, 43(1): 101-141.

ALEXANDER P.A., JETTON T.L., and KULIKOWICH J.M. Interrelationship of knowledge, interest, and recall: Assessing a model of domain learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1995, 87: 559-575.

AJZEN I., and FISHBEINM.. Attitude-behavior relations: A theoretical analysis and review of empirical research. Psychological Bulletin, 1977, 84(5): 888-918.


  • There are currently no refbacks.