Atherosclerosis Vaccine: A Review

Sidhi Laksono, Hillary Kusharsamita


Atherosclerosis is the world's largest pathological contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Since atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease in which the immune system plays an important role, it would be interesting to consider new techniques for targeting immune or inflammatory components as a novel approach to inflammation and atherosclerosis. Vaccination against atherosclerosis has been tested as a potential approach to overcome the condition. This study aims to review the current potential types of antigens for the atherosclerosis vaccine. We also aim to examine the challenges of the atherosclerosis vaccine for future research since there were significant gaps in evidence for human samples for vaccination testing and side effects in the atherosclerosis vaccine. The various potential of antigens for atherosclerosis vaccine includes lipid-related antigens (OXLDL apoB100, CETP, PCSK9) and non-lipid-related antigens (MHC II deprived peptides, HSP, S. Pneumoniae, interleukin, oral DNA vaccination, fibronectin, B2 glycoprotein, C5a receptor, plant base). The current study shows that atherosclerosis vaccination may not be used to treat humans since most studies have been done on animals and very few on humans. Further study in humans is required, in addition to continuing animal research, to evaluate atheroprotective efficacy and side effects.


Keywords: atherosclerosis, inflammation, vaccination, antigen.


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