Multi-Response Optimization for the Production of Antifungal Compound and Decomposition of Municipal Solid Waste decomposition by Streptomyces Sp. GMR22

H. K. Aliwarga, L. Sutiarso, J. Widada, B.D.A. Nugroho


Organic waste from the traditional market can be converted into value-added products via microbial fermentation. This study aims to evaluate the use of the proximate composition of traditional market waste to optimize the decomposition process and targeted output of decomposition products (in this case, antifungal compound) based on multi-responses analysis. A proximate combination of heterogeneous solid organic waste is a new approach to process organic waste using solid-state fermentation. It allows us to combine varied organic waste materials based on their nutritional value without adding a synthetic chemical compound. The proximate composition of traditional waste was adjusted with the addition of crop residue. Then response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the effect of the proximate composition on the production of an antifungal compound by Streptomyces sp. GMR22. RSM analysis showed the proximate composition of 4.55 g ash, 5.50 g protein, 1.61 g fat, and 41.00 g carbohydrate, which significantly correlate to the highest production of crude extract (0.014 g extract/g substrate) having a fungal inhibition zone of 19.8 mm. Antifungal activity and the growth of Streptomyces sp. GMR22 were optimized together via desirability function. Intended for the fermentation process, a substrate with proximate composition of 6.6 g of ash, 3.1 g of protein, 1.5 g of fat, and 41 g of carbohydrates will produce a zone of activity of 1.6 mm and 9×108 cells/g with an overall desired value of 0.8628. At the end of the fermentation process, value approximation and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis were conducted to confirm the decomposition process and antifungal compound production. Proximate compositions show decreased carbohydrate content while increasing protein and ash content, which indicates the decomposition process. HRMS data shows that 405 compounds were detected; 157 compounds following m/z cloud database, with two dominant compounds (furanone derivative and oleamide), indicated as an antifungal. Multi-response optimization using response surface methodology with desirability function can be used to determine the composition of waste and optimize multi-response (antifungal activity and Streptomyces sp. GMR22 growth) to meet the optimum value of each response.


Keywords: solid-state fermentation, response surface methodology, Streptomyces.

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