Enhanced Surface Wind Stress over the Sangihe-Talaud Islands Waters during the Extreme Climate Events of 2015 and 2019

Riza Yuliratno Setiawan, Lilik Maslukah, Nurjannah Nurdin, Anindya Wirasatriya, Eko Siswanto, Benny Hartanto


The ocean region off the Sangihe-Talaud Islands (STI) is pivotal because it provides a pathway for the Indonesian Throughflow and is situated in the epicenter of global marine biodiversity. However, until today sea surface variability of the region is poorly studied due to lacked long-term in situ measurements. The present research aims to elucidate the seasonal and interannual variability of surface winds and the effect of 2015 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and 2019 Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) on the ocean surface off the STI by analyzing long-term datasets (2007-2019) of satellite-derived sea surface wind, sea surface temperature (SST), and surface chlorophyll-a concentration. The present research serves as the first investigation on the mesoscale atmosphere-ocean interaction in the region. It aims to provide a better understanding of the sea surface dynamics of the STI. Results show that the prevailing northeasterly and southerly winds over the STI waters induce SST cooling and phytoplankton bloom. Furthermore, our correlation analysis revealed that the ENSO plays a dominant role in affecting sea surface conditions off the STI than the IOD, presumably due to its proximity to the Pacific Ocean. This inference is also supported by anomaly analysis that shows robust effects during the climate extreme events of 2015 compared to 2019. Collectively, the results of this research highlight the importance of extreme climate events in shaping ocean conditions.


Keywords: wind, chlorophyll-a, El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Indian Ocean Dipole, Sangihe-Talaud Islands.

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