Prevalence of Obesity among a Group of Kirkuk Women
An obese person's body suffers from the accumulation of fat, which has a detrimental effect on their health. A person is considered obese when their body weight is at least 20% more than it should be. Overweight is when the Body Mass Index (BMI) is between 25 and 29.9. While a BMI of 30 or more indicates obesity. The research goals are to detect how prevalent obesity is among Kirkuk women and its relation with education level, exercise, and other factors. The type of study is cross sectional study. The area chosen for this study was Kirkuk city, samples taken randomly from schools among teachers, primary health care visitors, and Azadi teaching hospital (mainly relatives of patients). The women were aged between 18-66 years old, and we exclude pregnant females. The data was collected using questionnaires. We measured height by tape-measure and weight by scales, and then we calculated their BMI using the following equation: BMI = weight in Kg/height in meter squared. Our results showed that 40% of the women were overweight, 23% were obese, and 12% were morbidly obese. Only around 25% of the sample was of normal weight. In our study, we found the prevalence of overweight and obesity increases with age. This finding might be related to a decrease in physical activity as people get older. Concerning the type of clothes worn by the women, it was found that those women who wore skirts and trousers quickly noticed changes in their body weight. We found a significant relationship between the increased number of glasses/cups of tea drunk during the day and the prevalence of obesity and overweight. Lactating women were found to be more overweight and obese in this study, but this was not significant. In conclusion, this study mainly has found that normal-weight was less than one-quarter of the sample studied. Type of clothes worn inside the home and older age were the main factors associated with obesity. Despite being a small study in 2 clinics, and the findings cannot be generalized, it still shows there is a problem and should immediately be addressed. More data about this problem needs to be collected and studied. Large studies are required to evaluate the prevalence of obesity in Kirkuk city. Encourage the community to change their eating habits and to exercise as they get older. Educate the community about the negative effects and complications of obesity. The study detected that most of the participants in the study were overweight or obese.
Keywords: obesity, overweight, women, Kirkuk.
RALSTON S., PENMAN I., STRACHAN M., and HOBSON R. Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine. 23th ed. Elsevier, 2016. https://www.elsevier.com/books/davidsons-principles-and-practice-of-medicine/ralston/978-0-7020-7028-0
EASTON J. D., HAUSEL S. L., MARTIN J. B., and ISSEELBACHER. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. 20th ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 2021.
ABBAS A. A., et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult Jordanians aged 25 years and over: results of a national survey. Journal of the Arab Board of Medical Specializations, 2020, 4(1): 90–97.
MUST A., SPADANO J., COAKLEY E. H., FIELD A. E., COLDITZ G., and DIETZ W. H. The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2019, 282(16): 1523–1529. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.16.1523
MOKDAD A. H., SERDULA M. K., DIETZ W. H., BOWMAN B. A., MARKS J. S., and KOPLAN J. P. The spread of the obesity epidemic in the United States, 1991–1998. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2019, 282(16): 1519–1522. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.16.1519
ABRANTES M. M., LAMOUNIER J. A., and COLOSIMO E. A. Overweight and obesity prevalence in northeast and southeast regions of Brazil. Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, 2017, 49(2): 162–166. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-42302003000200034
EICHHOLZER M., & CAMENZIND E. Ubergewicht, Adipositas und Untergewicht in der Schweiz: Resultate der Nutri-Trend-Studie 2000. Praxis, 2016, 92(18): 847–858. https://doi.org/10.1024/0369-83220.127.116.117
MAUNY F., VIEL J. F., ROUBAUX F., RATSIMANDRESY R., and SELLIN B. Blood pressure, body mass index and socio-economic status in the urban population of Antananarivo (Madagascar). Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 2018, 97(6): 645–654. https://doi.org/10.1179/000349803225001535
WANG W., WANG K., and LI T. A study on the epidemiological characteristics of obesity in Chinese adults. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing 18-Xue Za Zhi, 2001, 22(2): 129–132.
SILVERMAN L. R., & WING R. R. Weight gain during menopause. Is it inevitable or can it be prevented? Postgraduate Medicine, 2020, 108(3): 47–50. https://doi.org/10.3810/pgm.2000.09.1.1204
COITINHO D. C., SICHIERI R., and BENICIO M. H. Obesity and weight change related to parity and breast-feeding among parous women in Brazil. Public Health and Nutrition, 2021, 4(4): 865–870. https://doi.org/10.1079/PHN2001125
GIGANTE D. P., VICTORA C. G., and BARROS F. C. Breast-feeding has a limited long-term effect on anthropometry and body composition of Brazilian mothers. Journal of Nutrition, 2018, 131(1): 78–84. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/131.1.78
SENEKAL M., STEYN N. P., and NEL J. H. Factors associated with overweight/obesity in economically active South African populations. Ethnicity & Disease, 2016, 13(1): 109–116. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.621.6647&rep=rep1&type=pdf
KOH-BANERJEE P., CHU N. F., SPIEGELMAN D., ROSNER B., COLDITZ G., WILLETT W., and RIMM E. Prospective study of the association of changes in dietary intake, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking with 9-y gain in waist circumference among 16 587 US men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003, 78(4): 719–727. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/78.4.719
JAKICIC J. M., WINTERS C., LANG W., and WING R. R. Effects of intermittent exercise and use of home exercise equipment on adherence, weight loss, and fitness in overweight women: a randomized trial. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 1999, 282(16): 1554–1560. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.16.1554
LEON A. E., BARBA R. L., and MAJEM S. L. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the population of Canary Islands, Spain. Medicina Clinica, 2003, 120(5): 172–174.
AL-TAWIL N. G., ABDULLA M. M., and ABDUL AMEER A. J. Prevalence of and factors associated with overweight and obesity among a group of Iraqi women. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 2007, 13(2): 420-429. https://applications.emro.who.int/emhj/1302/13_2_2007_420_429.pdf
- There are currently no refbacks.