Enhancement of Eggplant Production in Intercropping Systems through Integrated Nutrient Management

Moch. Dawam Maghfoer, Mahayu Woro Lestari


This research aimed to increase eggplant production in intercropping systems. Therefore, integrated nutrient management was carried out in Poncokusumo, Malang, from April to October 2018. It was conducted using a factorial randomized block design with two factors and three replications. The first factor was various doses of goat manure, which consisted of 3 levels, namely, 10, 20, and 30 tons ha-1. Meanwhile, the second was microbial concentration and consisted of 7 levels, namely, without microbes as control, and 10, 20, 30 ml L-1 EM4, and ml l-1 PGPR (Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria), respectively. The results showed no significant interaction between the doses of goat manure and microbial concentration on the growth and yield of the eggplants. Furthermore, the manure application at doses of 20 and 30 t ha-1 increased the production of the plant's fruits to 60.33 and 64.83 t ha-1, respectively. While the use of EM4 and PGPR at concentrations of 20 and 30 ml L-1 led to the production at 63.16, 68.39, 61.57, and 64.61 t ha-1. The results also showed that goat manure and microbes in the intercropping system of eggplant, curly lettuce, and chickpeas increased land productivity. Furthermore, treatment with the manure at doses of 20 and 30 tons ha-1 had the same land equivalent ratio (LER) of 2.20. Finally, applications of 10, 20, and 30 ml of L-1 EM4 let to LER values of 2.14, 2.20, and 2.29, respectively, while PGPR at concentrations of 20 and 30 ml L-1 let to the values of 2,16 and 2.20.



Keywords: eggplant, nutrient management, goat manure, microbes.




Full Text:



GÜRBÜZ N., ULUIŞIK. S, FRARY A., and DOĞANLAR S. Health Benefits and Bioactive Compounds of Eggplant. Food Chemistry, 2018, 268: 602–610. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.06.093

NAEEM M. Y., & UGUR S. Nutritional Content and Health Benefits of Eggplant. Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 2019, 7(3): 31–36. https://doi.org/10.24925/turjaf.v7isp3.31-36.3146

HANNAH L., ROEHRDANZ P. R., KRISHNA BAHADUR K. C., FRASER E. D. G., DONATTI C. I., SAENZ L., WRIGHT T. M., HIJMANS R. J., MULLIGAN M., BERG A., and VAN SOESBERGEN A. The Environmental Consequences of Climate-Driven Agricultural Frontiers. Public Library of Sciences ONE, 2020, 15(2): 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0228305

PRETTY J. Intensification for Redesigned and Sustainable Agricultural Systems. Science, 2018, 362(6417): 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aav0294

YADAV G., SHIVRAN A. C., YADAV K. R., KUMAWAT S. R., and YADAV M. Chemical Science Review and Letters Effect of Intercropping Systems and Integrated Nutrient Management on Growth, Yield and Nutrient Uptake by Sesame under Semi-Arid Region. Chemical Science Review and Letters, 2017, 6(22): 1308–1311. https://doi.org/10.4236/jacen.2018.74014

BASAVARAJA P. K., SAQEEBULLA H. M., GANGAMRUTHA G. V., and PRABHUDEVA D. S. Use of STCR Targeted Yield Approach to Increasing Nutrient Use Efficiency in Eggplant (Solanum Melongena L.). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2019, 8(3): 3870–3873. https://www.phytojournal.com/archives/2019/vol8issue3/PartBE/8-3-288-865.pdf

SELIM M. M. Review Article Introduction to the Integrated Nutrient Management Strategies. International Journal of Agronomy, 2020, 1:14. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/2821678

THINGUJAM U., BHATTACHARYYA K., RAY K., PHONGLOSA A., PARI A., BANERJEE H., DUTTA S., and MAJUMDAR K. Integrated Nutrient Management for Eggplant: Yield and Quality Models through Artificial Neural Network. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 2020. 51(1): 70–85. https://doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2019.1695824.

ALI M. A., GENÇOĞLAN C, and GENÇOĞLAN S. The Effects of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer Applications on Yield and Plant Vegetative Growth of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 2019, 29(1): 1–9. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i130132

ISSAHAKU G., & ABDULAI A. Sustainable Land Management Practices and Technical and Environmental Efficiency among Smallholder Farmers in Ghana. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, 2020, 52(1): 96–116.


ROBA T. B. Review on: The Effect of Mixing Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer on Productivity and Soil Fertility. Open Access Library, 2018, 05(06): 1–11. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1104618

MEENA M. L., GEHLOT V. S., MEENA D. C., KISHOR S., and KUMAR S. Impact of Biofertilizers on Growth, Yield and Quality of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) Cv. Pusa Sheetal. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2017, 6(4): 1579–1583. https://www.phytojournal.com/archives/2017/vol6issue4/PartW/6-4-204-542.pdf

AGEGNEHU G., and AMEDE T. Integrated Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrient Management in Tropical Agro-Ecosystems: A Review. Pedosphere, 2017, 27(4): 662–680. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(17)60382-5

MAZZAFERA P., FAVARIN J. L., and DE ANDRADE S. A. L. Editorial: Intercropping Systems in Sustainable Agriculture. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 2021, 5: 1–3. https://doi.org/10.3389/fsufs.2021.634361

CHOWDHURY S., BOLAN N., FARRELL M., SARKAR B., SARKER J. R., KIRKHAM M. B., HOSSAIN M. Z., and KIM G. H. Role of Cultural and Nutrient Management Practices in Carbon Sequestration in Agricultural Soil. Advances in Agronomy, 2021, 166: 131–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.agron.2020.10.001

BARATH KUMAR T. R, PRADEEP KUMAR G., SURESH KUMAR R., and MURUGANAN-DAM C. Integrated Use of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers with Bio-Inoculants on Physicological Characteristics of Acid Lime (Citrus Aurantifolia Swingle). Plant Archives, 2020, 20: 1769–1772. http://www.plantarchives.org/SPECIAL%20ISSUE%2020-1/1769-1772%20(555).pdf

MÜLLER M., RAKOCEVIC M., CAVERZAN A., and CHAVARRIA G. Grain Yield Differences of Soybean Cultivars Due to Solar Radiation Interception. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2017, 08(11): 2795–2810. https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2017.811189

SINGH P., GOSWAMI S. P., CHOUDHARY S., and KUMAR S. The Role of Soil Microbes in Plant Nutrient Availability. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 2017, 6(2): 1444–1449. https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2017.602.161

JACOBY R., PEUKER M., SUCCURRO A., KOPRIVOVA A., and KOPRIVA S. The Role of Soil Microorganisms in Plant Mineral Nutrition — Current Knowledge and Future Directions. Frontiers in Plant Science, 2017, 8: 1–19. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01617

PUNIA H., TOKAS J., MALIK A., RANI A., GUIPOTA P., KUMARI A., MOR V. S., BHUKER A., and KUMAR S. Solar Radiation and Nitrogen Use Efficiency for Sustainable Agriculture. Resources Use Efficiency in Agriculture. Springer, Singapore, 2020: 177-212. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-6953-1

HANYABUI E., APORI S O, FRIMPONG K A, ATIAH K, ABINDAW T, ALI M, ASIAMAH J. Y., and BYALEBEKA J. Phosphorus Sorption in Tropical Soils. AIMS (American Institute of Mathematical Sciences) Agriculture and Food, 2020, 5(4): 599–616. https://doi.org/10.3934/AGRFOOD.2020.4.599

AWODUN M. A., OLADELE S., and ADEYEMO A. J. Efficient Nutrient Use and Plant Probiotic Microbes Interaction. Probiotics in Agroecosystem. Springer Nature, Singapore, 2017: 217–232. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4059-7

LI S., PENG M., LIU Z., and SHAH S. S. The Role of Soil Microbes in Promoting Plant Growth. Molecular Microbiology Research, 2017, 7(4): 30–37. https://doi.org/10.5376/mmr.2017.07.0004

MAITRA S., SHANKAR T., and BANERJEE P. Potential and Advantages of Maize-Legume Intercropping System. Maize - Production and Use. IntechOpen, London, UK, 2020: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.91722

HUA W., LUO P., AN N., CAI F., ZHANG S., CHEN K., YANG J., and HAN X. Manure Application Increased Crop Yields by Promoting Nitrogen Use Efficiency in the Soils of 40-Year Soybean-Maize Rotation. Scientific Reports, 2020, 10(1): 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71932-9


  • There are currently no refbacks.