Scope of Sustainable Development Indicators in the Post-COVID Era in México

María Elena Tavera Cortés, Alan Jesús Torres Sandoval, Xenia Mena Espino, Martha Jiménez García


This research evaluates indicators of sustainable development in Mexico, analyzing their impact on the country’s economic, social, and environmental realms, and reviews the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the achievement of sustainable development goals. The methodology employed involves a comprehensive bibliometric analysis, comparing indicators from the United Nations (UN), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and Mexico’s National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI). The results obtained in this study reveal significant challenges, including the lack of indicator homogeneity and insufficient data availability, which hinder the accurate measurement of progress and policy formulation. Furthermore, this situation is exacerbated by the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, which affected development and consequently the attainment of sustainable development goals in Mexico. This work highlights the urgent need for standardized indicators and better data collection systems, which are essential for effective sustainable development strategies. In addition, the importance of fostering inter-institutional cooperation and civil society participation to address these challenges is emphasized, marking a critical step toward a resilient, equitable, and sustainable future for Mexico.


Keywords: sustainable development, Sustainable Development Goals, Sustainable Development Indicators, Mexico, sustainability.

Full Text:



BALI R., & YANG-WALLENTIN F. Achieving Sustainable Development Goals: Predicaments and Strategies. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 2019, 27(2): 96-106.

ALAIMO, L., & MAGGINO F. Sustainable Development Goals Indicators at Territorial Level: Conceptual and Methodological Issues. Social Indicators Research, 2019, 147: 383-419.

HUAN Y., LIANG T., LI H., and ZHANG C. A Systematic Method for Assessing Progress of Achieving Sustainable Development Goals: A Case Study of 15 Countries. Science of the Total Environment, 2021, 752: 141875.

COCHRAN F., DANIEL J., JACKSON L., and NEALE A. Earth Observation-Based Ecosystem Services Indicators for National and Subnational Reporting of the Sustainable Development Goals. Remote Sensing of Environment, 2020, 244: 111796.

THE ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN & THE PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION. Health and the economy: a convergence needed to address COVID-19 and retake the path of sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2020.

GÓMEZ V., & QUISPE-CASA H. Impacto de la COVID-19 en la consecución del desarrollo sostenible: Una revisión. Revista de Investigación Agropecuaria, 2021, 1(3): 1–12.

TAVERA CORTÉS M. E. The Mexican economy: from recession to depression in the face of the Covid-19 pandemic. Economíaunam, 2023, 18(38): 115–152.

LIU S. Towards a Sustainable Agriculture: Achievements and Challenges of Sustainable Development Goal Indicator 2.4.1. Global Food Security, 2023, 37: 100694.

GÓMEZ C. Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS): una revisión crítica. Papeles de Relaciones Ecosociales y Cambio Global, 2018, 140: 107–118.

HAK T., JANOUSKOVÁ S., and MOLDAN B. Sustainable Development Goals: A need for relevant indicators. Ecological Indicators, 2016, 60: 565-573.

ROBERT K. W., PARRIS T. M., and LEISEROWITZ A. A. What Is Sustainable Development? Goals, Indicators, Values, and Practice. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 2005, 47(3): 8–21.

TÁPANES E., BOSCH O., SÁNCHEZ Y., MARQUÉS M., and SANTOS O. Sistema de indicadores para el control de la sostenibilidad de los centros históricos asociada al transporte. Región Científica, 2023, 2(1): 202352.

EISENMENGER N., PICHLER M., KRENMAYR N., NOLL D., PLANK B., SCHALMANN E., WANDL M., and GINGRICH S. The Sustainable Development Goals prioritize economic growth over sustainable resource use: a critical reflection on the SDGs from a socio-ecological perspective. Sustainability Science, 2020, 15: 1101–1110.

INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTADÍSTICA Y GEOGRAFÍA (INEGI). Economic and Ecological Accounts of Mexico (CEEM) 2022, 2023.

SUÁREZ EIROA B. Hacia una circularidad justa y sostenible: Una aproximación a la economía circular desde la economía ecológica y la ecología política. Terra: Revista de Desarrollo Local, 2023, 12: 56–75.

ACUÑA-MORAGA O., SEVERINO-GONZÁLEZ P., SARMIENTO-PERALTA G., and STUARDO-SOLAR C. Sustainable consumption in Chile: an approach to sustainable development goals (SDGs). Información Tecnológica, 2022, 33(4): 181-190.

INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTADÍSTICA Y GEOGRAFÍA. Information System for Sustainable Development Goals, 2023.

VELASCO A., MARTÍNEZ L., GARCÍA L., and HERNÁNDEZ A. Desarrollo sostenible, ocupación y ciudades. El caso de Oaxaca, México. Secuencia, 2022, 114: e1940.

NAVA M. F. E., VELÁSQUEZ A. D. E., SANJINES M. P., AYARZA B. C. P., ALARCÓN R., MUÑOZ R. H., and SANHUEZA A. Behavior and social inequalities in prioritized indicators of Sustainable Development Goal 3 in Bolivia. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, 2020, 44: e101.

KAVVADA A., METTERNICHT G., KERBLAT F., MUDAU N., HALDORSON M., LALDAPARSAD S., FRIEDL L., HELD A., and CHUVIECO E. Towards delivering on the Sustainable Development Goals using Earth observations. Remote Sensing of Environment, 2020, 247: 111930.

BENAVIDES-SANCHEZ E., MOYA-CLEMENTE I., and RIBES-GINER G. Emprendimiento Sostenible y Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible: un análisis bibliométrico. Tec Empresarial, 2022, 16(1): 101–122.

ALONSO-BECERRA A., BAÑOS-MARTÍNEZ M., and COLUMBIÉ-SANTANA M. Los objetivos de desarrollo sostenible desde la proyección estratégica de la educación superior. Ingeniería Industrial, 2021, 42(1): 62-77.


  • There are currently no refbacks.