Statistical Results of Reasoning Disorders in Children Worldwide

Hind Baba, Touri Bouzekri, Aziz Kasmi, Khaoula Khennou, Hind Bouzoubaa


The delay or absence of logical structures necessary for learning and reasoning constitutes reasoning disorders. These disorders affect more logic in general and can cause language disorders and lead to school failure in schoolchildren, especially if they go unnoticed. This study aims to make an inventory of these disorders in Morocco through a comparative study to detect the prevalence of reasoning disorders in the different countries identified by this study in the world as well as to compare them with the prevalence of these disorders in Morocco. We have chosen an intervention method: a qualitative method with an inductive approach or "inductivism" to collect the information necessary for comparing to identify the most dominant type of these disorders in Morocco and develop the tools and skills for the prevention and detection of these types of disorders. The results suggest that ADHD is prevalent in Morocco. Few studies in Morocco explain the lower statistics for these disorders, given the infrequency of observing cases of sick children suffering from symptoms associated with these disorders of the mind. Generally, these reasoning disorders are higher in men than in women. Further research into reasoning disorders may lead to the development or improvement of new methods of clinical treatment of these disorders for evaluation in clinical trials.


Keywords: reasoning disorders, children, cognitive psychology, comparative study, analogical reasoning.

Full Text:



KRAWCZYK D.C. Disorders of reasoning. In: Reasoning – The Neuroscience of How We Think. Elsevier, 2018: 155-176. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-809285-9.00007-7

ALSHEHRI A.M., SHEHATA S.F., ALMOSA K.M., and AWADALLA N.J. Schoolteachers’ knowledge of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-current status and effectiveness of knowledge improvement program: A randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2020, 17(15): 5605.

BRADSHAW L.G., and KAMAL M. Prevalence of ADHD in Qatari school-age children. Journal of Attention Disorders, 2017, 21(5): 442-449.

GRISARDS Inventory of educational arrangements and examinations for young people with dyscalculia. University of Lille, 2012.

ALKHAWALDEH M.A., and KHASAWNEH M.A.S. The Effectiveness of Phonological Awareness Training in Treating Deficiencies in Auditory Processing Among Children with Learning Disabilities Among Elementary Cycle Students in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Language Education, 2020, 4(3): 350-360.

IMANE G., KHALID M., MOHAMMED B. and TOURI B. Working Memory, Processing Speed, Visuospatial and Class Notes: Proof of the Administration of Intelligence Test on Moroccan Students. International Journal of School and Cognitive Psychology, 2020, 7(220): 1-4. http://doi: 10.35248/2469-9837.19.6.220

BERGADI M., MARNOUFI K., TOURI, B., and GHAZLANE I. Intelligence analysis among rural learners in Morocco. In: International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends, 2020: 1-6. DOI: 10.36315/2020inpact016

KOBAYASHI C., GLOVER G.H., and TEMPLE, E. Cultural and linguistic influence on neural bases of “Theory of Mind”: an fMRI study with Japanese bilinguals. Brain and Language, 2006, 98(2): 210-220.

HUH H.J., BAEK K., KWON J.H., JEONG J., and CHAE J.H. Impact of childhood trauma and cognitive emotion regulation strategies on risk-aversive and loss-aversive patterns of decision-making in patients with depression. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 2016, 21(6) : 447-461.

BARDIN L. Content analysis. French University Press, 2013. http://doi:10.3917/puf.bard.2013.01.

KRZEMIEN M. Analogical reasoning, relational knowledge and language disorders. Glossa, 2016, 119: 1-22.

DEHETRE A. Speech therapist professional booklet 2019. National federation of speech therapists, France, 2019.

VISSER S.N., DANIELSON M.L., BITSKO R.H., HOLBROOK J.R., KOGAN M.D., GHANDOUR R.M., PEROU R., and BLUMBERG S.J. Trends in the parent-report of health care provider-diagnosed and medicated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: United States, 2003-2011. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2014, 53(1): 34-46. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaac.2013.09.001

LECENDREUX, M., KONOFAL, E., and FARAONE, S. V. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Associated Features among Children in France. Journal of Attention Disorders, 2010, 15(6) : 516-524. DOI: 10.1177/1087054710372491

DIALLO F.B., ROCHETTE L., PELLETIER É., LESAGE A., VINCENT A., VASILIADIS H.-M., and PALARD S. Surveillance of attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADHD) in Quebec. National Institute of Public Health of Quebec, Canada, 2019.

RUSSELL G., RODGERS L.R., UKOUMUNNE O.C., and FORD T. Prevalence of Parent-Reported ASD and ADHD in the UK: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2013, 44(1): 31-40.

OKUMURA Y., USAMI M., OKADA T., SAITO T., NEGORO H., TSUJII N., FUJITA J., and IIDA J. Prevalence, incidence and persistence of ADHD drug use in Japan. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 2019, 28(6): 692-696.

SALEM H., YOUSSEF I.M., ALKHADHARI S., FAHMY M.T., HAGGAG W.E., MUHAMED A.G., and RADWAN D.N. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a referred sample of school-aged children in Kuwait: sociodemographics, frequency, clinical presentations and impairments. The Egyptian Journal of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Egyptian Psychiatric Association, 2014, 35(3): 115.

BENER A. The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms in school children: A highly consanguineous community. European Psychiatry, 2009, 24. DOI: 10.1016/s0924-9338(09)70622-4

MOTAWEH D., HIROMITSU, and AHMED. Effectiveness of the proposed training program on attention and working memory for children with special needs in Saudi Arabia. Life Science Journal, 2014, 11(8): 461-473. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.31537.84320

VAN DEN BAN E.F., SOUVEREIN P.C., VAN ENGELAND H., SWAAB H., EGBERTS T.C.G., and HEERDINK E. R. Differences in ADHD medication usage patterns in children and adolescents from different cultural backgrounds in the Netherlands. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 2015, 50(7): 1153-1162.

ROMAN A.S., PISONI D.B., and KRONENBERGER W.G. Assessment of Working Memory Capacity in Preschool Children Using the Missing Scan Task. Infant and Child Development, 2014, 23: 575-587.

SWANSON H.L., and HOWELL M. Working memory, short-term memory, and speech rate as predictors of children’s reading performance at different ages. Journal of Educational Psychology, 2001, 93(4): 720-734.

TANNOCK R., ICKOWICZ A., and SCHACHAR R. Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Working Memory in ADHD Children with and without Comorbid Anxiety. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 1995, 34(7): 886-896.

ALLOWAY T.P., GATHERCOLE S.E., KIRKWOOD H., and ELLIOTT J. Evaluating the validity of the Automated Working Memory Assessment. Educational Psychology, 2008, 28(7): 725-734.

MARTON K., and SCHWARTZ R.G. Working Memory Capacity and Language Processes in Children With Specific Language Impairment. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 2003, 46(5).

ELSAYYAD H., EVERATT J., MORTIMORE T., and HAYNES C. The influence of working memory on reading comprehension in vowelized versus non-vowelized Arabic. Reading and Writing, 2016, 30(4): 871-886.

SALEH M.S., ALJAAM J.M., KARIME A., and SADDIK A. An edutainment system for assisting qatari children with moderate intellectual and learning disability through exerting physical activities. In: IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON), 2013.

RAKHLIN N.V., ALJUGHAIMAN A., and GRIGORENKO E.L. Assessing language development in Arabic: The Arabic language: Evaluation of function (ALEF). Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 2019, 10(1): 37-52.

KHALID M., TOURI B., MOHAMMED B., and IMANE G. Working memory, processing speed & visuospatial intelligence tests results compared to class performance within Moroccan pupils. European Journal of Education and Applied Psychology, 2020, 2: 27-32.

MCLEAN J.F., and HITCH G.J. Working memory impairments in children with specific arithmetic learning difficulties. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1999, 74(3): 240-260. DOI:10.1006/jecp.1999.2516

ORDONEZ MAGRO L., ATTOUT L., MAJERUS S., and SZMALEC A. Short-and long-term memory determinants of novel word form learning. Cognitive Development, 2018, 47: 146-157.

GASCOIGNE M.B., SMITH M.L., BARTON B., WEBSTER R., GILL D., and LAH S. Accelerated long-term forgetting in children with temporal lobe epilepsy. Neuropsychologia, 2014, 59: 93-102.

ALLOWAY T.P., and GATHERCOLE S.E. The role of sentence recall in reading and language skills of children with learning difficulties. Learning and Individual Differences, 2005, 15(4): 271-282.

UNO A., KANEKO M., HARUHARA N, and KAGA M. Disability of phonological versus visual information processes in Japanese dyslexic children. In: Sixth International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 2000) Beijing, China, October 16-20, 2000, 2: 42-44.

AL-GHURAIR N. Adaptive Arabic application for enhancing short-term memory of Dyslexic children. Journal of Engineering Research, 2019, 7(1).

HAMDY HASSAN R., and NEVES J. Teaching vocabulary to deaf students through enriched subtitling: A case study in Qatar. International Journal of Language Translation and Intercultural Communication, 2019, 8: 10.

YADAV S., and BHATTACHARAYA C. Effectiveness of Memory Package to improve long term memory and problems related to memory among children of age group 6-8 years in selected school. Saudi Journal of Nursing and Health Care, 2021, 4(7): 170-177.

BOUHOUCH R. R., EL-FADELI S., ANDERSSON M., ABOUSSAD A., CHABAA L., ZEDER C., and ZIMMERMANN M.B. Effects of wheat-flour biscuits fortified with iron and EDTA, alone and in combination, on blood lead concentration, iron status, and cognition in children: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2016, 104(5): 1318-1326.

WELLMAN H.M., BARON-COHEN S., CASWELL R., GOMEZ J.C., SWETTENHAM J., TOYE E., and LAGATTUTA K. Thought-bubbles help children with autism acquire an alternative to a theory of mind. Autism, 2002, 6(4): 343-363.

DURRLEMAN S., BURNEL M., DE VILLIERS J.G., THOMMEN E., YAN R., and DELAGE H. The Impact of grammar on mentalizing: a training study including children with autism spectrum disorder and developmental language disorder. Frontiers in Psychology, 2019, 10.

SPADY D.W., SCHOPFLOCHER D.P., SVENSONL. W., and THOMPSON A.H. Prevalence of Mental Disorders in Children Living in Alberta, Canada, as Determined From Physician Billing Data. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 2001, 155(10): 1153-1159.

BUITELAAR J.K., WEES M., SWAAB-BARNEVELD H., and GAAG R.J. Verbal memory and performance IQ predict theory of mind and emotion recognition ability in children with autistic spectrum disorders and in psychiatric control children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1999, 40(6): 869-881.

KOBAYASHI C., GLOVER G. H., and TEMPLE E. Cultural and linguistic influence on neural bases of “Theory of Mind”: An fMRI study with Japanese bilinguals. Brain and Language, 2006, 98(2): 210-220.

ELTAWEEL E., and IBRAHIM M. Theory of mind deficits in symptom remittent schizophrenia. Middle East Current Psychiatry, 2017, 24(3): 102-108.

WILU A., ALLAIN P., MOUSTAFA A.A., and EL HAJ M. To whom did I tell that information?: Relationship between destination memory and theory of mind in traumatic brain injury. Applied Neuropsychology: Adult, 2021, 28(1): 1-11.

AL-SUGHAYR A.M., and FERWANA M.S. Prevalence of mental disorders among high school students in National Guard Housing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Family & Community Medicine, 2012, 19(1): 47-51.

SZCZYPIŃSKI J., ALIŃSKA A., WALIGÓRA M., KOPERA M., KRASOWSKA A., MICHALSKA A., and MARCHEWKA A. Familiarity with children improves the ability to recognize children’s mental states: an fMRI study using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task and the Nencki Children Eyes Test. Scientific Reports, 2020, 1.

FACOETTI A., ZORZI M., CESTNICK L., LORUSSO M.L., MOLTENI M., and PAGANONI P. The relationship between visuo-spatial attention and nonword reading in developmental dyslexia. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 2006, 23(6): 841-855.

FRANCESCHINI S., GORI S., RUFFINO M., PEDROLLI K., and FACOETTI A. A causal link between visual spatial attention and reading acquisition. Current Biology, 2012, 22(9): 814-819.

NADLER R.T., and ARCHIBALD L.M.D. The Assessment of Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory with school age Canadian children. Canadian Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, 2014, 38(3): 262-279.

HAMILTON C., COATES R., and HEFFERNAN T. What develops in visuo-spatial working memory development? European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 2003, 15(1): 43-69. DOI: 10.1080/09541440303597

KOKUBO N., INAGAKI M., GUNJI A., KOBAYASHI T., OHTA H., KAJIMOTO O., and KAGA M. Developmental change of visuo-spatial working memory in children: quantitative evaluation through an Advanced Trail Making Test. Brain & Development, 2012, 34(10): 799-805.

HINDAL H.S. Visual-spatial learning: A characteristic of gifted students. European Scientific Journal, 2014, 10 (13): 557-574.

EL BASHIR H., DEKAIR L., MAHMOUD Y., and BEN-OMRAN T. Neurodevelopmental and cognitive outcomes of classical homocystinuria: Experience from Qatar. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease Reports, 2015, 21: 89-95.

TAHA M.M., and EL NAGAR H.Z. Constructing and norming Diagnostic Battery Tests of verbal and non-verbal learning disabilities for students in Arabic schools. Insights into Learning Disabilities, 2018, 15(1): 65-84.

KLEEMANS T., SEGERS E., and VERHOEVEN L. Cognitive and Linguistic Predictors of Basic Arithmetic Skills: Evidence from First-language and Second-language Learners. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 2014, 61(3): 306-316.

GREEN A.E., KENWORTHY L., MOSNER M.G., GALLAGHER N.M., FEARON E.W., BALHANA C.D., and YERYS B.E. Abstract Analogical Reasoning in High-Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Autism Research, 2014, 7(6): 677-686.

BOSSE M.L., VALDOIS S., and TAINTURIER M.J. Analogy without priming in early spelling development. Reading and Writing, 2003, 16(7): 693-716.

WALTON P.D., WALTON L.M., and FELTON K. Teaching rime analogy or letter recoding reading strategies to prereaders: Effects on prereading skills and word reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 2001, 93(1): 160-180.

WRIGHT J., and JACOBS B. Teaching Phonological Awareness and Metacognitive Strategies to Children with Reading Difficulties: A comparison of two instructional methods. Educational Psychology, 2003, 23(1): 17-47.

INAGAKI K., and HATANO G. Young children’s spontaneous personification as analogy. Child Development, 1987, 58(4): 1013.

GILBERT E.A. Culture, lay science, and analogies: Westerners think X → Y, Easterners think X :: Y. PsyArXiv Preprints, 2017.

GLADY Y., FRENCH R.M., and THIBAUT J.P. Children’s failure in analogical reasoning tasks: A problem of focus of attention and information integration? Frontiers in Psychology, 2017, 8: 707.

BEVERIDGE M., and PARKINS E. Visual representation in analogical problem solving. Memory & Cognition, 1987, 15(3): 230-237.

BLOM E., POLIŠENSKÁ D., and WEERMAN F. Articles, adjectives and age of onset: the acquisition of Dutch grammatical gender. Second Language Research, 2008, 24(3): 297-331. https:/

HANTEN G., SCHEIBEL R.S., LI X., OOMER I., STALLINGS-ROBERSON G., HUNTER J.V., and LEVIN H.S. Decision-making after traumatic brain injury in children: a preliminary study. Neurocase, 2006, 12(4): 247-251.

JOLLANT F., BELLIVIER F., LEBOYER M., ASTRUC B., TORRES S., VERDIER R., and COURTET P. Impaired Decision Making in Suicide Attempters. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2005, 162(2): 304-310.

KULLY-MARTENS K., TREIT S., PEI J., and RASMUSSEN C. Affective Decision-Making on the Iowa Gambling Task in Children and Adolescents with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 2012, 19(02).

HUH H.J., BAEK K., KWON J.H., JEONG J., and CHAE J.H. Impact of childhood trauma and cognitive emotion regulation strategies on risk-aversive and loss-aversive patterns of decision-making in patients with depression. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 2016, 21(6): 447-461.

TAKAGISHI H., KOIZUMI M., FUJII T., SCHUG J., KAMESHIMA S., and YAMAGISHI T. The Role of Cognitive and Emotional Perspective Taking in Economic Decision Making in the Ultimatum Game. PLoS ONE, 2014, 9(9).

HENNELLY K.E., MANNIX R., NIGROVIC L.E., LEE L.K., THOMPSON K.M., MONUTEAUX M.C., PROCTOR M., and SCHUTZMAN S. Pediatric traumatic brain injury and radiation risks: a clinical decision analysis. Journal of Pediatrics, 2013, 162(2): 392-397.

AL-SHAMI R., KHAIR A. M., ELSEID M., IBRAHIM K., AL-AHMAD A., ELSETOUHY A., KAMEL H., AL YAFEI K., and MOHAMED K. Neuro-imaging evaluation after the first afebrile seizure in children: A retrospective observational study. Seizure: The Journal of the British Epilepsy Association, 2016, 43: 26-31.

ALHABDAN S., ZAMAKHSHARY M., AL NAIMI M., MANDORA H., ALHAMDAN M., AL-BEDAH K., AL-ENAZI S., and AL-HABIB A. Epidemiology of traumatic head injury in children and adolescents in a major trauma center in Saudi Arabia: implications for injury prevention. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 2013, 33(1): 52-56.

KHALIL J., CHAABI S., OBERLIN O., SIALITI S., HESSISSEN L., and BENJAAFAR N. Medulloblastoma in childhood: What effects on neurocognitive functions? Cancer Radiotherapy, 2019, 23(5): 370-377. DOI: 10.1016/j.canrad.2018.11.004.

HAAN N., SMITH M.B., and BLOCK J. Moral reasoning of young adults: political-social behavior, family background, and personality correlates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1968, 10(3): 183-201.

O’CONNOR, R.E. Political activism and moral reasoning: Political and apolitical students in great Britain and France. British Journal of Political Science, 1974, 4(1): 53-78.

BEAUCHAMP M.H., DOOLEY J.J., and ANDERSON V. A preliminary investigation of moral reasoning and empathy after traumatic brain injury in adolescents. Brain Injury, 2013, 27(7-8): 896-902.

SPENSER K.A., BULL R., BETTS L., and WINDER B. Gender Differences in Theory of Mind, Empathic Understanding, and Moral Reasoning in an Offending and a Matched Non-Offending Population. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 2021, 66(5).

BEAR G.G., MANNING M.A., and SHIOMI K. Children’s Reasoning about Aggression: Differences between Japan and the United States and Implications for School Discipline. School Psychology Review, 2006, 35(1): 62-77.

BOYDEN J. The Moral Development of Child Soldiers: What Do Adults Have to Fear? Peace and Conflict. Journal of Peace Psychology, 2003, 9(4): 343-362.

YUGUERO O., ESQUERDA M., VIÑAS J., SOLER-GONZALEZ J., and PIFARRE J. Ethics and empathy: The relationship between moral reasoning, ethical sensitivity and empathy in medical students. Revista Clinica Espanola (English Edition), 2019, 219(2): 73-78.

ALSAMIH M., and TENENBAUM H.R. Saudi Arabian children’s reasoning about religion-based exclusion. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 2018, 36(3): 508-513.

BAYSU G., CELESTE L., BROWN R., VERSCHUEREN K., and PHALET K. Minority Adolescents in Ethnically Diverse Schools: Perceptions of Equal Treatment Buffer Threat Effects. Child Development, 2016, 87(5): 1352-1366.

ABBASSI B. School failure: diagnostic orientation and therapeutic perspectives. Ph.D. thesis, Cadi Ayyad University, 2009.

FRENCH NATIONAL AUTHORITY FOR HEALTH. How to improve the health course of a child with specific language and learning disorders? 2017.

TROCHIM, W.M. and DONNELLY, J.P. The Research Methods Knowledge Base. 3rd ed. Atomic Dog, Cincinnati, OH, 2006.


  • There are currently no refbacks.