Bacillariophyceae Distribution and Water Quality in Estuarine-Mangrove Environments: The Commonest Phytoplankton in Musi Estuary, Indonesia

Rozirwan, Redho Yoga Nugroho, Puspa Indah Wulandari, Riris Aryawati, Fauziyah, Wike Ayu Eka Putri, Andi Agussalim, Isnaini


This study reveals the distribution of Bacillariophyceae in estuarine-mangrove which is mainly influenced by the quality of the waters. The main component analysis approach between variables is critical in this study because it determines the environmental characteristics in each estuarine zone. Estuarine-mangrove environments have different physical-chemical dynamics compared to other types of waters, one of which is Musi Estuary, located on the coast of South Sumatra. The aquatic environment of the Musi Estuary is influenced by tidal fluctuations that bring nutrients from inland waters and mangrove litter. This condition is perfect for the phytoplankton habitat, which plays an essential role in the ecological processes of waters as primary producers. This study aims to examine the diversity of Bacillariophyceae phytoplankton in the mangrove estuary environment and its possible role in estuarine ecology. Data were collected at ten observation stations in July, including samples of phytoplankton and water physical-chemical data such as pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, water brightness, current speed, nitrates, and phosphates. Quantitative measurement of phytoplankton was performed using an Olympus CX23 light microscope at 100X magnification, while data were analyzed using PCA and Bray-Curtis similarity analysis. Water environment conditions were measured in a stable range in each zone except for salinity and brightness. Furthermore, only Bacillariophyceae were observed in all observation zones dominated by the Skeletonema genus. It is a dominant presence, and its abundance determined its role as a significant primary producer in the estuary outer zone near the sea. This study implicitly revealed the existence of Skeletonema in influencing ecological processes in estuary mangrove waters.


Keywords: biodiversity, species, Musi Estuary, principal components analysis, phytoplankton.

Full Text:



GROENEVELD JC, HOGUANE AM, KUGURU B, et al. Estuarize-WIO: A socio-ecological assessment of small-scale fisheries in estuaries of the Western Indian Ocean. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science, 2021, (1/2021): 1–15.

GU Xiaoxuan, ZHAO Hewei, PENG Congjiao, et al. The mangrove blue carbon sink potential: Evidence from three net primary production assessment methods. Forest Ecology and Management, 2022, 504: 119848.

XIA Shaopan, SONG Zhaoliang, LI Qiang, et al. Distribution, sources, and decomposition of soil organic matter along a salinity gradient in estuarine wetlands characterized by C: N ratio, δ13C‐δ15N, and lignin biomarker. Global Change Biology, 2021, 27(2): 417–34. ttps://

CHEN Hui, FENG Jianxiang, ZHANG Yihui, et al. Significant but short time assimilation of organic matter from decomposed exotic Spartina alterniflora leaf litter by mangrove polychaetes. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 2021, 259: 107436.

TAKARINA ND, NURLIANSYAH W, and WARDHANA W. Relationship between environmental parameters and the plankton community of the Batuhideung Fishing Grounds. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 2019, 20(1): 171–80.

WANG Chao, JIA Huijuan, WEI Jingxin, et al. Phytoplankton functional groups as ecological indicators in a subtropical estuarine river delta system. Ecological Indicators, 2021, 126: 107651.

ZHAO Qiuyue, LIU Shutang, and NIU Xinglong. Effect of water temperature on the dynamic behavior of phytoplankton–zooplankton model. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 2020, 378: 125211.

ROZIRWAN, MELKI, APRI R, et al. Assessment the macrobenthic diversity and community structure in the Musi Estuary, South Sumatra, Indonesia. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2021, 41(4): 346–350.

ROZIRWAN, MELKI, APRI R, et al. Assessment of phytoplankton community structure in Musi Estuary, South Sumatra, Indonesia. AACL Bioflux, 2021, 14: 1451–1463.

ROZIRWAN, NUGROHO RY, HENDRI M, et al. Phytochemical profile and toxicity of extracts from the leaf of Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. collected in mangrove areas affected by port activities. South African Journal of Botany, 2022, 150: 903–19.

ROZIRWAN, FAUZIYAH, WULANDARI PI, et al. Assessment distribution of the phytoplankton community structure at the fishing ground, Banyuasin estuary, Indonesia. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2022, 42: 670–678.

ROZIRWAN, FAUZIYAH, NUGROHO RY, et al. An ecological assessment of crab’s diversity among habitats of migratory birds at Berbak-Sembilang national park, Indonesia. International Journal of Conservation Science, 2022, 13(3): 961–972.

ROZIRWAN, ISKANDAR I, HENDRI M, et al. Distribution of phytoplankton diversity and abundance in Maspari island waters, South Sumatera, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Journal of Physics, 2019, 1282: 012105.

ROZIRWAN, SUGEHA HY, FITRIYA N, et al. Correlation Between the Phytoplankton Distribution with the Oceanographic Parameters of the Deep-Sea Surface of Sangihe-Talaud, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2021, 789(1): 12007.

HARTLEY B. An atlas of British diatoms. Balogh Scientific Books; 1996.

TOMAS CR. Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. St. Petersburg: Academic Press; 1997.

ODUM EP. and BARRETT GW. Fundamentals of ecology. vol. 3. Saunders Philadelphia; 1971.

MACCREADY P, GEYER WR, and BURCHARD H. Estuarine exchange flow is related to mixing through the salinity variance budget. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 2018, 48(6): 1375–84.

ALMANIAR S, ROZIRWAN, and HERPANDI. Abundance and diversity of macrobenthos at Tanjung Api-Api waters, South Sumatra, Indonesia. AACL Bioflux, 2021, 14: 1486–97.

TOMPERI J, ISOKANGAS A, TUUTTILA T, et al. Functionality of turbidity measurement under changing water quality and environmental conditions. Environmental Technology, 2020: 1–9.

CLOERN JE, JASSBY AD, SCHRAGA TS, et al. Ecosystem variability along the estuarine salinity gradient: Examples from long‐term study of San Francisco Bay. Limnology and Oceanography, 2017, 62(S1): S272–91.

OLLI K, PTACNIK R, KLAIS R, et al. Phytoplankton species richness along coastal and estuarine salinity continua. The American Naturalist, 2019, 194(2): E41–51.

QUIGG A, PARSONS M, BARGU S, et al. Marine phytoplankton responses to oil and dispersant exposures: Knowledge gained since the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2021, 164: 112074.

QUIJANO-SCHEGGIA S, GARCÉS E, SAMPEDRO N, et al. Identification and characterisation of the dominant Pseudo-nitzschia species (Bacillariophyceae) along the NE Spanish coast (Catalonia, NW Mediterranean). Scientia Marina, 2008, 72(2): 343–59.

YAMADA M, OTSUBO M, KODAMA M, et al. Species composition of Skeletonema (Bacillariophyceae) in planktonic and resting-stage cells in Osaka and Tokyo Bays. Plankton and Benthos Research, 2014, 9(3): 168–175.

SAWAI Y, TANIGAWA K, SHINOZAKI T, et al. Diatom (Bacillariophyceae) assemblages in tidal environments of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Phycological Research, 2022, 70(1): 3–21.

BHARATHI MD, SARMA V, and RAMANESWARI K. Intra-annual variations in phytoplankton biomass and its composition in the tropical estuary: Influence of river discharge. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2018, 129(1): 14–25.

HILALUDDIN F, YUSOFF FM, and TODA T. Shifts in diatom dominance associated with seasonal changes in an estuarine-mangrove phytoplankton community. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 2020, 8(7): 528.

OGURA A, AKIZUKI Y, IMODA H, et al. Comparative genome and transcriptome analysis of diatom, Skeletonema costatum, reveals evolution of genes for harmful algal bloom. BMC Genomics, 2018, 19(1): 1–12.

BEAMUD SG, BAFFICO G, REID B, et al. Photosynthetic performance associated with phosphorus availability in mats of Didymosphenia geminata (Bacillariophyceae) from Patagonia (Argentina and Chile). Phycologia, 2016, 55(2): 118–125.

OGAWA Y, OKAMOTO Y, SADABA RB, et al. Sediment organic matter source estimation and ecological classification in the semi-enclosed Batan Bay Estuary, Philippines. International Journal of Sediment Research, 2021, 36(1): 110–9.

LEE C. and LIM W. Variation of harmful algal blooms in Masan-Chinhae Bay. Science Asia, 2006, 32(Supplement 1): 51–6. 10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2006.32(s1).051.

SHEHATA N, MEEHAN K, and LEBER DE. Oceanography of Skeletonema costatum harmful algal blooms in the East China Sea using MODIS and QuickSCAT satellite data. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 2012, 6(1): 63529.

FENG C, ISHIZAKA J, SAITOH K, et al. A Novel Method Based on Backscattering for Discriminating Summer Blooms of the Raphidophyte (Chattonella spp.) and the Diatom (Skeletonema spp.) Using MODIS Images in Ariake Sea, Japan. Remote Sensing, 2020, 12(9): 1504.

TIAN Rongxiang, LIN Qun, LI Dewang, et al. Atmospheric transport of nutrients during a harmful algal bloom event. Regional Studies in Marine Science, 2020, 34: 101007.

TENG ST, ABDULLAH N, HANIFAH AH, et al. Toxic bloom of Pseudo-nitzschia cuspidata (Bacillariophyceae) and domoic acid contamination of bivalve molluscs in Malaysia Borneo. Toxicon, 2021, 202: 132–141.

SAHU G, MOHANTY AK, SARANGI RK, et al. Asterionellopsis glacialis (Family: Fragilariaceae, Class: Bacillariophyceae, Phylum: Ochrophyta) bloom and its impact on plankton dynamics at Kalpakkam (Bay of Bengal, Southeast coast of India). Oceanologia, 2022, 64(1): 145–159.

RADCHENKO IG, SHEVCHENKO VP, KRAVCHISHINA MD, et al. The first record of Thalassiosira angulata (Bacillariophyceae) bloom in the White Sea: spatial distribution and associated species. Moscow University Biological Sciences Bulletin, 2018, 73(4): 217–221.

ROZIRWAN, APRI R, and ISKANDAR I. Distribution of zooplankton abundance and diversity in the vicinity of Maspari Island, Bangka Strait, South Sumatra, Indonesia. EurAsian Journal of BioSciences, 2020, 14(2): 3571–3579.

SAPUTRA A, NUGROHO RY, ISNAINI R, et al. A review: The potential of microalgae as a marine food alternative in Banyuasin Estuary, South Sumatra, Indonesia. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, 2021, 59: 1053–1065.

NAIR PG, JOSEPH S, PILLAI N, et al. Trophic significance of microzooplankton to commercially important small pelagic fishes along the southwest coast of India. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2021, 28(45): 64394–64406.


  • There are currently no refbacks.