Battery Monitoring System with Internal Impedance Reading (BMS-IIR) Using IoT

Mustafa Man, Mohd Fairuz Affandi Bin Aziz, Fakhrul Adli Mohd. Zaki, Wan Aezwani Wan Abu Bakar, Mohd. Kamir Yusof, C. S. Chew, Lim Chi Haur, Nur Laila Najwa Bt. Josdi


The purpose of this research is to develop a battery management system capable of directly reading internal impedance. Currently, many systems used in major markets are based on lead acid batteries (LABs) because of their effectiveness in powering such major applications as telecommunication systems, rectifiers, uninterruptable power supplies (UPSs), forklifts, and buggy systems. LABs are easily available at a low cost. But they last only two to five years because of factors that erode performance: depth of discharge (DOD), the lack of any mechanism to prevent excessive charging, extreme temperatures, and the charging algorithm. The popular lithium iron phosphate (LiFeP04) battery has a longer life cycle, higher energy density, and a longer shelf life, and it can provide continuous power over longer periods of time. But because it is expensive, in many contexts it is inadvisable to replace LABs with LiFeP04 batteries. As an alternative, this paper introduces a battery monitoring system with internal impedance reading (BMS-IIR). A BMS-IIR is an electronic monitoring system equipped with a voltage sensor and a Wi-Fi module. It uses Arduino Uno scripting to ensure real-time monitoring of the voltage of every battery and to ensure that impedance readings are in a condition of equal and balanced charge. The experimental results indicate that data on the voltage and impedance of all four batteries in BMS-IIR devices are accurately read and monitored in real time using the BMS-IIR cloud storage setup. 


Keywords: battery management system, internal impedance reading, lead acid batteries, lithium iron phosphate, lifespan, Internet of Things.

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