Analysis of Vehicle Front-end Structure Parameters Based on Pedestrian Landing Impacts

SHI Liangliang, HAN Yong, BANG Bingyu, HUANG Hongwu, ZHOU Dayong, YANG Zhen


In the pedestrian-vehicle collision accident, pedestrian may suffer head injury not only from the primary impact with the vehicle but also from the secondary impact with the ground. In order to comprehensively analyze the influence of vehicle front-end structure parameters on pedestrian kinematics and head injury in primary and secondary impacts,in this paper, a series of multi-body models of pedestrian-vehicle collisions were constructed by utilizing the MADYMO code, with adjusting parameters of windshield angle(WA),bonnet angle(BA),bonnet length(BL),bonnet leading edge height(BLEH)and ground clearance(GC). The influence significance of vehicle parameters on the pedestrian kinematics and injury was analyzed by using multiple linear regression analysis. The results indicate that BLEH is the most significant influence factor on head HIC value(car)(p<0.01) and pedestrian rotation angles in the primary and secondary impact,respectively.The influence of BA on the head angle acceleration (car) is more significant than that of BLEH. WA, BL and GC show a less influence on the kinematics and injuries of pedestrian. The lower BLEH provides better protection of the head in the primary collision, but it can easily lead to the head to collide with the ground firstly in the secondary impact, which increases the risk of head and neck injury. A quantitative analysis of the effect of vehicle front-end structure parameters on the primary and secondary impact was also conducted in the study, and the results can provide some reference for vehicle safety design.



Keywords: pedestrian safety,  vehicle front-end structure,  head injury,  multiple linear regression analysis

Full Text:



YANG J. Mathematical simulation of knee responses associated with leg fracture in car–pedestrian accidents[J]. International Journal of Crashworthiness, 1997, 2 (3):259—272.

HAN Y, YANG J, MIZUNO D, et al. A study on chest injury meskanism and the effectiveness of a headform impact test for pedestrian chest protection from vehicle collisions [J]. Safety Science, 2012, 50 (5):1304—1312.

HAN Y, YANG J, NISHIMOTO D, et al. Finite element analysis of kinematics behavior and injuries to pedestrians in vehicle collisions [J]. International Journal of Crashworthiness, 2012, 17 (2):141— 152.

LAN F C, HUANG B, CHEN J Q, et al. Development and injury parameters research of a FE model of lower limb with high precision for adult pedestrians [J]. Journal of Hunan University (Natural Sciences),2016,43(10):42—51 (In Chinese)

CAVALLERO C, CESARI D, RAMET M, et al. Improvement of pedestrian safety: influence of shape of passenger car–front structures upon pedestrian kinematics and injuries:evaluation based on 50 cadaver tests [R].SAE Technical Paper, 1983.

ASHTON S J, MACDAY G M. Benefits from changes in vehicle exterior design–field accident and experimental work in Europe[R]. SAE Technical Paper, 1983.

DENDALL R, MEISSNER M, CRANDALL J. The causes of head injury in vehicle–pedestrian impacts: comparing the relative danger of vehicle and road surface[C]// SAE 2006 World Congress & Exhibition. 2006.

TAMURA A, DUMA S. A study on the potential risk of traumatic brain injury due to ground impact in a vehicle–pedestrian collision using full–scale finite element models [J]. International Journal of Vehicle Safety, 2011, 5(2): 117—136.

TAMURA A, DOIDE T, YANG D H. Effects of ground impact on traumatic brain injury in a fender vault pedestrian crash [J]. Inter– national Journal of Vehicle Safety, 2014, 8 (1): 85—100.

CROCETTA G, PIANTINI S, PIERINI M, et al. The influence of vehicle front–end design on pedestrian ground impact [ J]. Accident Analysis & Prevention,2015,79: 56—69.

SIMMS C D, ORMOND T, BOOD D P. The influence of vehicle shape on pedestrian ground contact mechanisms[C]//Proceedings of IRCOBI Conference.Poland,2011.

ITO D, YAMADA H, OIDA K,et al. Finite element analysis of kinematic behavior of cyclist and performance of cyclist helmet for human head injury in vehicle–to– cyclist collision [C]// IRCOBI Conference. 2014: 14—21.


  • There are currently no refbacks.