Optimization of Acid-Catalyst Hydrolysis Process in Lactic Acid Production from Rice Husk by Using Lactobacillus bacteria

Tri Widjaja, Siti Nurkhamidah, Nuniek Hendrianie, Aisyah Alifatul Zahidah Rohmah, Kharisma Perdana Setiawan


Lactic acid is an important component of manufacturing polylactic acid (PLA), which can be produced with high-lignocellulosic biomass, still few of them have utilized that. The production process starts with Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide (AHP) pretreatment, acid-catalyzed (H2SO4) hydrolysis followed by post-hydrolysis, and fermentation using a mixture of Lactobacillus brevis + Lactobacillus rhamnosus and single Lactobacillus delbrueckii bacteria. The effectiveness of pretreatment results was analyzed by using Thermal Gravity Analysis (TGA), which resulted in the removal of lignin and cellulose are 32.60% and 43.18%, respectively. Lignin reduction results are supported by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for morphology analysis; it is shown the surface of rice husk becomes rough and cracks after pretreatment. Cellulose reduction was analyzed by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and shown the Crystallinity Index (CrI) decrease after chemical pretreatment. The optimum operating condition of hydrolysis was also studied using Face Centered Composite Design (FCCD) by Response Surface Methodology (RSM), and get the optimum conditions at a 4 M H2SO4 for 30.7 minutes 63.1 . Followed by post-hydrolysis for 10 minutes at 121 , it resulted in sugar concentration of 15.3056 g/L, which was analyzed by using dinitrosalicylic-acid (DNS) with Root Mean Square Error of 0.78009. The last process is fermentation which is carried out at 125 rpm 37 , for 48 hours. Through High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis, the lactic acid concentration of a single bacterium and a mixture was 24.595 and 24.975%, respectively. Similar research has been previously carried out using palm waste raw materials with the enzymatic hydrolysis method without optimization of RSM. This study investigates the effect of AHP pretreatment in the lignin removal process, the effectiveness of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis in the optimized sugar reduction through FCCD, and compares lactic acid concentrations obtained from the fermentation process with L. delbrueckii and culture L. rhamnosus + L. brevis.


Keywords: acid-catalyst hydrolysis, alkaline hydrogen peroxide, lactic acid, Lactobacillus bacteria, response surface methodology.




Full Text:




THIRUCHELVI R., ARYAMAN D., and EESANI S. Bioplastics as Better Alternative to Petro Plastic. Journal of Materials Today: Proceedings, 2021, 37(2): 1634-1639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.07.176

BHIOGADE A., KANNAN M., and DEVANATHAN S. Degradation kinetics study of Polylactic acid (PLA) based biodegradable green composites. Materials Today: Proceedings, 2020, 24(2): 806–814. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.04.389

FENILA F., & YOGENDRA S. Optimal Control of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass. Resource-Efficient Technology Journal, 2016, 2(1): S96-S104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reffit.2016.11.006

ALI N., & HAMOUDA S. Combinations of Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide and Lithium Chloride/N, N Dimethyl Acetamide Chloride/NN, Dimethylacetamide Pretreatments of Corn Stalk For Improved Biomethanation. Enviromental Research, 2020, 186: 109563–109570. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109563

DUSSAN K. J., & SILVA D. D. Dilute-acid Hydrolysis of Cellulose to Glucose from Sugarcane Bagasse. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 2014, 38: 433-438. http://doi.org/10.3303/CET1438073

ANDRIANI Y., SASTRAWIBAWA, and HERAWATI. The Effect of Acid Hydrolysis on Degradation of Lignoselulosa Bond in Cassava Peel asa Fish Feed. Bandung: Universitas Padjajaran, 2018. http://pustaka.unpad.ac.id/wpcontent/ploads/2015/03/u20the_effect_of_acid_hydrolysis_on_degradation.pdf

ERLIANA W., WIDJAJA T., ALTWAY A., and PUDJIASTUTI L. Synthesis of Lactic Acid From Sugar Palm Trunk Waste (Arenga pinnata): Preliminary hydrolysis and fermentation studies. Biodiversitas, 2020, 21(5): 2281-2288. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d210559

CIZEIKIENE D., GRAZINA J., and JONAS D. Use of Wheat Straw Biomass in Production of L-lactic Acid Applying Biocatalysis and Combined Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains Belonging to the Genus Lactobacillus. Journal of Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 2018, 15: 185-191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcab.2018.06.015

CARRIER M., LOPPINET-SERAMI A., DENUX D., LASNIER J.-M. HAM-PICHAVANT F., CANSELL F., and AYMONIERAB C. Thermogravimetric analysis as a new method to determine the lignocellulosic composition of biomass. Biomass and Bioenergy, 2011, 35(1): 298–307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2010.08.067

LINI F. Z., WIDJAJA T., HENDRIANIE N., ALTWAY A., NURKHAMIDAH S., and TANSIL Y. The Effect of Organosolv Pretreatment on Optimization of Hydrolysis Process to Produce The Reducing Sugar. MATEC Web of Conferences, 2018, 154: 01022-01029. https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201815401022

ASROR K., & EMILIA A. R. Effect of Temperature And Concentration Naoh On The Process Hydrothermal Of Rice Straw For Biogas Materials. Thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, 2017.

MITTAL A., KATAHIRA R., DONOHOE B. S., BLACK B. A., PATTATHIL S., STRINGER, J. M., and BECKHAM G. T. Alkaline peroxide delignification of corn stover. ACS Sustain. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 2017, 5(7): 6310-6321. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b01424

SIREGAR M. R., HENDRAWAN Y., and NUGROHO. Pengaruh Konsentrasi NaOH dan Lama Waktu Pemanasan Microwave dalam Proses Pretreatment terhadap Kadar Lignoselulosa Chlorella vulgaris. Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian, 2014, 15(2): 129-138. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/PENGARUH-KONSENTRASI-NaOH-DAN-LAMA-WAKTU-PEMANASAN-SiregarHendrawan/168be67d88790dda797bb46129f41ca6161f2068

MAHDY A., LARA M., MERCEDES B., and CRISTINA G. F. Autohydrolysis and Alkaline Pretreatment Effect on Chlorella vulgaris and Schenedesmus sp. Methane Production. Energy Elsevier, 2014, 78(C): 48-52. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.05.052

YUSNICA S., SANGIAN H. F., GUNAWAN S., and WIDJAJA A. Pretreatment of Sugarcane Bagasse with NaOH and [DMIM][DMP] for Efficient Hydrolysis. Thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, 2014.

HE Y. F., PANG Y., and LIU Y. Physicochemical Characterization of Rice Straw Pretreated with Sodium Hydroxide in The Solid State for Enhancing Biogas Production. Energy Fuels, 2008, 22(4): 2775–2781. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef8000967

VALA R. M., & TICHAGWA. Low Temperature Acid Hydrolysis of Grass-Derived Lignocellulose for Fermentable Sugars Production. Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, 2013, 47(7): 565-572. https://www.cellulosechemtechnol.ro/pdf/CCT7-8(2013)/p.565-572.pdf

CHEN H. Lignocellulose Biorefinery Engineering. Cambridge. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Sawstone, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2014-0-02702-5

VAN E. C., VAESSEN E., WEUSTHUIS R., and EGGINK G. Identifying inhibitory effects of lignocellulosic by-products on growth of lactic acid producing micro-organisms using a rapid small-scale screening method. Bioresource Technology, 2016, 209(1): 297-304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.03.037

GUO W. Q., & REN N. Q. Optimization of culture conditions for hydrogen production by Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 using response surface methodology. Bioresource Technology, 2009, 100(3): 1192-1196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.07.070

SHET V. B., SANIL N., BHAT M., NAIK M., and MASCARENHAS. Acid hydrolysis optimization of cocoa pod shell using response surface methodology approach toward ethanol production. Agriculture and Natural Resources, 2018, 52(6): 581-587. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anres.2018.11.022

PANESAR P. S., KENNEDY J. F., KNILL C. J., and KOSSEVA M. Production of L(+) Lactic Acid using Lactobacillus casei from Whey. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 2010, 53 (1): 219-226. http://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132010000100027

CUI F., LI Y., and WAN C. Lactic acid production from corn stover mixed cultures of L. rhamnosus and L. brevis. Bioresource Tech, 2011, 102(2): 1831-1836. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.09.063

ZAMANOVA M. K., GLOTOVA V. N., IZHENBINA T. N., KRUTAS D. S., and NOVIKOV V. T. Simultaneous HPLC-UV determination of lactic acid, glycolic acid, glycolide, lactide and ethyl acetate in monomers for producing biodegradable polymers. Procedia Chemistry, 2014, 10: 244-251. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.proche.2014.10.041


  • There are currently no refbacks.